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Protection of the weak (1)

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10 Judiciary and legislature

01 Religious and ideological doctrines and imagery

Hittite Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian and Old Babylonian Empires
Greek poets
Hittite culture
Old Assyrian and Old Babylonian texts
Old Testament

Codex Hammurapi, Epilogue:
In order that the mighty not wrong the weak, to provide just ways for the waif and the widow, I have inscribed my precious pronouncements upon my stela and set it up before the statue of me, the king of justice.

Hymn to Marduk:
The wronged and slaughtered, you dispense their justice daily; you set aright the homeless girl, the widow, the wretched and harassed. Without you, the destitute and the widow are not cared for; the destitute and the widow call upon you, O Lord.

CTH 376:
Of the oppressed, the orphan and the widow you (= the god) are father and mother; the cause of the orphan you, Telipinu, do take to heart.

Exodus 22:21:
You shall not maltreat a sojorner or oppress him, for you were sojourners in Egypt. You shall not afflict any widow or orphan: if you do afflict them, and they cry to me, I shall certainly hear their cry, and my wrath will be kindled.

Hesiod, Works and Days 327-334:
It is the same if a man does wrong by a suppliant or a visitor … or if in his folly he wrongs someone’s orphan children … With that man Zeus himself is indignant, and in the end he imposes a harsh return for his unrighteous actions

Sources (list of abbreviations) (source links will open in a new browser window)
Codex Hammurapi, Epilogue
CTH 376
Exodus 22:21
Hesiod, Works and Days 327-334
Hymn to Marduk


Foster 1996, 608Foster, Benjamin. Before the Muses. Ann Arbor: CDL Press 1996 (second edition).
Roth 1995, 133-134Roth, Martha T. Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Writings from the Ancient World 6. Atlanta: Scholars Press 1995.
West 1997, 129-130West, Martin L. The East Face of Helicon. West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1997.

Amar Annus

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