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The Heritage of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East

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N.B.: Please note that the text of this document has not been altered in any way since July 4, 1999. It should be considered completely outdated by now and is included here only for historical reasons.

The Melammu Manual

by Simo Parpola
This version completed July 4, 1999

The information found in this document reflects the date of its completion and is subject to updating and modification. The present version replaces the preliminary draft completed in December 1998 and circulated until April 1999.
   Questions, comments, criticisms, and suggestions regarding this document are welcome and should be sent to or to the Melammu Project, c/o State Archives of Assyria Project, Institute for Asian and African Studies, POB 59 (Unioninkatu 38 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.


   1. The Background and Organization of the Project
   2. The Goals of the Project
   3. Introduction to the Database
      3.1 Definition of Mesopotamian Imperial Culture
      3.2 Transmission and Diffusion of Mesopotamian Imperial Culture
      3.3 The Name and Logo of Melammu
      3.4 The Purpose of the Database
   4. The Scope of the Database
      4.1 Chronological Coverage
      4.2 Geographical Coverage
      4.3 Topical Coverage
      4.4 Problematic Data
      4.5 Impertinent Data
   5. Compilation and Management of the Database
      5.1 Compilation Strategy
       5.1.1 Easily Identifiable Data
       5.1.2 Scattered Data
       5.1.3 Collaboration with Other Projects
      5.2 Systematic Data Entry
       5.2.1 Research Assistants
       5.2.2 Invited Contributors
      5.3 Outside Contributors
       5.3.1 How to Contribute
       5.3.2 Bonuses
       5.3.3 Contact Data
      5.4 Database Manager
      5.5 Consultants
      5.6 Steering Committee
   6. General Plan of the Database
      6.1 Keywords
      6.2 Entries
      6.3 Data Search
       6.3.1 Keyword search
       6.3.2 Word, name or string search
      6.4 Online Data Submission
      6.5 The Language of the Database
   7. Content, Preparation and Structure of Database Entries
      7.1 Basic Data
       7.1.1 Text/Abstract and Document
       7.1.2 Illustration
       7.1.3 Bibliography
      7.2 Supplementary Information
       7.2.1 Name
       7.2.2 Type
       7.2.3 Keyword
       7.2.4 Period and Date
       7.2.5 Channel of Transmission
       7.2.6 Summary
       7.2.7 Authorship Indication
       7.2.8 Hypertext Links
       7.2.9 Remarks
      7.3 Preparing Material for the Database
       7.3.1 Normal Text
       7.3.2 Special Characters
      7.4 Editing Submitted Data
       7.4.1 Entry Number
       7.4.2 Field Identifiers, Keywords and Links
       7.4.3 Conversion into Database Format
      7.5 Database Entry Format
       7.5.1 Record Structure
       7.5.2 FI
       7.5.3 Two Samples of the Database Entry Format
      7.6 Database Files
   Appendix 1. Keywords
      A. Constituent Elements of Mesopotamian Imperial Culture
       1. Religious and ideological doctrines and imagery
       2. Religious and ideological symbols and iconographic motifs
       3. Religious festivals, cults, rituals and practices
       4. Religious and philosophical literature and poetry
       5. Scientific knowledge and scholarly lore
       6. Visual arts and architecture
       7. Crafts and economy
       8. Administrative systems
       9. Army and warfare
       10. Jurisdiction and legislature
       11. Language, communication, libraries and education
       12. Assyrian identity
      B. Periods
      C. Channels of Transmission
   Appendix 2. Samples of Database Entries
      A. Raw Entries
      B. Samples of Entries Converted into Database Format
       1. Raw entries
       2. Edited entries
       3. Entries in database format
   Appendix 3. Organization of Melammu
      1. Steering Committee
      2. Consultants
      3. Database Manager
      4. Research Assistants
      5. Supporting Institutions
   Appendix 4. Melammu Symposia
      1. Tvärminne 1998
      2. Paris 1999
   Appendix 5. Contact Data
      1. Steering Committee Members
      2. Database Manager


1. The Background and Organization of the Project (top)

The Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage project (Melammu) investigates the continuity, transformation and diffusion of Mesopotamian imperial culture in the Mediterranean world from the thirteenth century BC until the advent of Islam. The project is expected to open many new perspectives and significantly contribute to the understanding of cultural evolution in the East and West. A specific goal of Melammu is to document the shaping and survival of Assyrian ethnic and cultural identity up to the present day and to trace the continuity of Assyrian cultural elements in post-Empire times, particularly in Graeco-Roman Syria and Mesopotamia and in Syriac Christianity.
   The project was initiated in 1998 by the State Archives of Assyria Centre of Excellence of the University of Helsinki (SAA). While Melammu continues to be supported by SAA and some of its central functions are currently located in Helsinki, it is a completely independent project with no formal ties to SAA. In the opening symposium of Melammu held in Tvärminne, Finland, in October 1998, it was decided that the project will be directed by a nine-member international steering committee with chairmanship rotating yearly and that it will have a large interdisciplinary board of consultants and a staff of research assistants located in different countries. For details of the organization of Melammu see Appendix 3.
   Financial support for Melammu is currently being provided by SAA only. It was agreed in Tvärminne that a non-profit fund to support the project would have to be established as soon as possible by the institutions represented at the meeting. The support given to the project will be visibly acknowledged on the home page of the Melammu database and in all Melammu publications. The supporting institutions have a representative on the steering committee, receive complimentary copies of project publications and are informed about the progress of the project, but are not involved in its research nor in its practical realization.

2. The Goals of the Project (top)

The central objective of Melammu is to create an electronic database bringing together the textual, art-historical, archaeological and ethnographic evidence relevant to the study of Mesopotamian imperial culture and its diffusion and continuity in later times. The database will be compiled with international collaboration and will be made available on the Internet. In addition, the project organizes annual symposia focusing on different aspects of cultural continuity and evolution in the Mediterranean world. The theme of the opening symposium in Tvärminne was "The Heirs of Assyria." The second symposium, to be held in Paris on October 4-7, 1999, will deal with "Mythology and Mythologies: Methodological Approaches to Intercultural Influences." The proceedings of the meetings are published annually in a series bearing the name of the project and issued by SAA.
   The compilation of the database will take several years, and annual symposia will continue to be arranged for at least this period.


3. Introduction to the Database (top)

3.1 Definition of Mesopotamian Imperial Culture (top)
"Mesopotamian imperial culture" as understood in this document refers to a complex system of ideological and religious doctrines, scientific knowledge and literature, theological, cosmological and mythological concepts, cultic rituals and festivals, court ceremony, visual arts, imagery and symbolism, etc. (see Appendix 1), that evolved in Mesopotamian imperial courts over a period of several millennia in an effort to justify the king's position as the earthly representative of god, to maintain his ritual purity, to serve his daily needs, to back up his power, and to propagate his glory to his subjects and to the outside world. Since higher learning and arts could in Mesopotamia be practiced only in the context of palace or temple, "Mesopotamian imperial culture" is largely synonymous with "Mesopotamian intellectual culture." It is important to note, however, that it is not synonymous with "Mesopotamian culture" in general, which is a much broader concept and largely falls outside the scope of the Melammu project (see section 4.3 below).
   In line with its origin and development, Mesopotamian imperial culture can be regarded as an integrated, essentially homogenous whole making up a coherent system highly resistent to change. While it was subject to continuous refinement, modification and expansion in its details, its fundamentals remained essentially unchanged over the millennia. This was so because, in its orientation and overall value structure, the imperial culture was firmly anchored to its starting point, the institution of divine kingship, which constituted the pivotal point of Mesopotamian civilization at large. Any fundamental changes to the system as a whole were excluded as long as this pivotal point remained unchanged and was compatible with the prevalent world view.

3.2 Transmission and Diffusion of Mesopotamian Imperial Culture (top)
Mesopotamian imperial culture was passed on to the first millennium BC in two principal variants, Assyrian and Babylonian, both of which derived from earlier Sumerian and Akkadian traditions, shared innumerable features, and considerably influenced each other over the centuries. While it is possible and indeed necessary to distinguish between the two in details, from the viewpoint of cultural evolution both must be considered just variants of the same system and will hence not be systematically distinguished in the Melammu project.
   With the expansion of the Assyrian Empire, Mesopotamian imperial culture spread over the entire Near East, strongly influencing cultural development even outside the actual borders of the Empire. However, paradoxically it was only after the collapse of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires that Mesopotamian imperial culture truly spread beyond its original home and became a major factor in the cultural evolution of the East and West. The Iranian, Macedonian and Roman dynasties that inherited imperial power from the Assyrians and Babylonians, each in their turn adopted the Mesopotamian imperial culture, made it their own, added to it, and actively spread it (in modified form) throughout the ancient world. The emergence of Hellenistic civilization and the orientalization of Rome are but later aspects of a long process of cultural expansion and assimilation that had it beginnings already in the early third millennium BC and even before.

3.3 The Name and Logo of Melammu (top)
The name of the project (suggested by Antonio Panaino) and its logo (suggested by Simo Parpola) were chosen to illustrate essential aspects of the underlying diffusion and transformation process. The word melammu, which means "divine radiance, splendour, nimbus, aura," is an Akkadian loanword from Sumerian and thus concretely illustrates the transfer and continuity of a centrally important doctrinal concept from an earlier ideological system to a later one. In Mesopotamia alone, this concept has a documented continuity of over 4,500 years, from the earliest cuneiform religious and historical documents (ca. 2,600 BC) till the present day. The iconography of the concept has gone a long way from the radiance surrounding Mesopotamian gods to the halos surrounding the heads of Byzantine angels and saints and the loops hovering over the heads of Christian angels, but the concept itself has survived amazingly well and spread far beyond its original home.
   The spread of the concept can be traced by observing the diffusion and transformations of the relevant iconographic motif. The logo of Melammu is taken from an Achaemenid seal discovered on the south coast of the Black Sea and represents the goddess Anahita, mounted on a lion and surrounded by the divine radiance, appearing to a Persian king. The details of the king's and the goddess's dress and crown are Persian, but in all other respects the seal is a faithful reproduction of centuries older Assyrian seals depicting appearances of the goddess Ishtar to members of the imperial ruling class. It thus illustrates not only the adoption of the Mesopotamian concept of "divine radiance" by the Persians, but also the assimilation of an important Iranian deity to a Mesopotamian one with the concomitant adoption of a whole system of religious beliefs, cultic practices, ideological doctrines, and artistic conventions. The fact that the seal was found outside the area controlled by the Assyrian Empire and possibly carved by a Greek artist, illustrates the dynamic diffusion of these ideas (through imperial propaganda) across geographical and cultural boundaries.
   The radiance emitted by the goddess symbolizes to the project the powerful impact of Mesopotamian imperial culture on the surrounding world and later cultures, while the king symbolizes the crucial role of imperial courts in the preservation, transformation and diffusion of this cultural heritage.

3.4 The Purpose of the Database (top)
The gradual transformation of Mesopotamian imperial culture into Hellenistic, Graeco-Roman and Iranian imperial culture has never been systematically investigated and there is a great deal to be gained from a detailed and comprehensive study of the subject.
   The purpose of the Melammu database is to collect the available textual, art-historical, archaeological and ethnographic evidence relating to the subject and to make it available to researchers worldwide in a reliable and easily accessible and manageable form. Apart from furthering the specific goals of the Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage project, it is hoped that Melammu will become a gateway to Mesopotamian civilization in general and stimulate interdisciplinary research by making cuneiform sources better accessible to non-Assyriologists.
   It should be stressed that the purpose of the database is emphatically NOT to "prove" that everything originated in ancient Assyria or Babylonia, nor to replace a Hellenocentric view of cultural evolution with a Pan-Mesopotamian one. Rather, by making available a great amount of interconnected diachronic cross-cultural data, Melammu will aid in understanding cultural evolution as a process of organic growth, with inherited cultural elements constantly merging with new elements introduced by the dynamics of contemporary life. The particular orientation of Melammu guarantees that many well-known phenomena will appear in a new light and can be evaluated from a multidimensional rather than unilateral perspective.

4. The Scope of the Database (top)

4.1 Chronological Coverage (top)
The time frame covered by Melammu is basically 1350 BC--AD 900. Within this period, the emphasis is on the time after 609 BC (the year marking the fall of the Assyrian Empire). The imperial culture of the period between 1350 and 609 BC, which forms the starting point and frame of reference of the database, will be covered by articles tied to the keywords listed in Appendix 1 A (see section 5.2.2). Hence no primary data attesting to cultural continuity in Mesopotamia proper during this period will be included in Melammu. Data attesting to the diffusion of imperial culture outside Mesopotamia during this period can however be included.
   Since documenting the continuity of Mesopotamian imperial culture is a central objective of the Melammu project, the database can also include data from earlier Mesopotamian empires insofar as they conform with the list of keywords in Appendix 1 A. Even though the lowermost time limit for the database is AD 900, later data may also exceptionally be included.

4.2 Geographical Coverage (top)
In principle, the database has no geographical limits. From the viewpoint of cultural history, it is important to document the diffusion of Mesopotamian ideas and cultural elements (e.g., the zodiac) to the outside world whenever possible. However, from the viewpoint of the project itself it would be nonsensical to try and trace the history of each borrowed item globally in its new environment(s). Quite apart from the magnitude of such an effort, the data collected would contribute nothing essential to the project itself. Hence Melammu will be geographically limited to the Mediterranean oikumene in the wide sense, which also includes India.
   Within this geographical area, primary data on the history of borrowed items outside Mesopotamia proper will be collected inasfar as they meaningfully contribute to the general goals of the project. This means, for example, that extracts from the Platonic corpus will be included in the database wherever a dependance from Mesopotamian thought can be demonstrated or is suspected (see section 4.4), but the history of Platonic thought as such falls outside the scope of the database and will be covered by bibliographic references only. On the other hand, if it can be shown that Mesopotamian ideas/cultural items passed to the Greeks via Hittite or other Anatolian or Phoenician/Levantine intermediaries, the individual links in this chain of transmission obviously are of interest and should be documented in the database.

4.3 Topical Coverage (top)
The topical coverage of Melammu is defined by the list of keywords in Appendix 1 A. Even though this list is by no means exhaustive and will be expanded and refined during the compilation of the database, it gives a good idea of the kind of data that should be included. To avoid misunderstandings, it must be stressed that the list is intended to cover Mesopotamian imperial culture only and should not expand into a survey of Mesopotamian culture in general.
   Specifically, the database will systematically collect passages in ancient texts (cuneiform, Greek, Latin, Iranian, Elamite, Egyptian, Coptic, Phoenician, Punic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, or Indian) and well-documented modern studies that

— refer to Assyria(ns), Babylonia(ns) or Chaldaean(s) in post-Empire times;
— explicitly assign specific religious beliefs and practices, cosmological or philosophical doctrines, scientific knowledge etc. to Assyrian, Babylonian or Chaldaean origins;
— attest to the continuity of central elements of Mesopotamian imperial culture in post-Empire times, even if these are not explicitly identified as Assyrian or Babylonian;
— attest to or discuss the transmission and diffusion of Mesopotamian ideas, doctrines, theories, rituals, symbolism, imagery, literary motifs and techniques, scientific and technological knowledge, hermeneutical methods etc. outside Mesopotamia; or
— explain or comment upon the meaning of symbols and imagery central to or attested in Mesopotamian imperial culture.

   In addition, other kinds of primary data (archaeological, art-historical, ethnographic) attesting to the continuity, transformation and diffusion of Mesopotamian imperial culture will also be systematically collected and included in the database.

4.4 Problematic Data (top)
In individual cases it is obviously sometimes impossible to be sure whether the occurrence of an item of Mesopotamian imperial culture elsewhere really is evidence of cultural continuity/diffusion or just a case of cultural parallelism. In such cases, the item should be included if

— the parallelism is not just general and formal but specific and functional as well;
— it is embedded in a larger system which is also parallel in both cultures;
— the item concerned is attested in Mesopotamian sources earlier than in the other culture;
— there is a viable method (e.g., geographical proximity) by which the item might have passed to the other culture; and
— there is a viable reason (e.g., lack of a concept or specific knowledge) why the item should have been adopted by the other culture.

   Since the purpose of the database is not just to further the goals of the Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage project but also to encourage and facilitate interdisciplinary research, it is not harmful if all the data included do not strictly pertain to cultural continuity/diffusion. After the database has been completed, the user will be able to decide the relevance of an item on the basis of the total evidence.

4.5 Impertinent Data (top)
Apart from data falling outside the scope of Melammu as defined above, the following kinds of data do not belong in the database:

— faulty or otherwise inadequate translations of primary texts found in obsolete publications;
— obsolete or inadequately documented scholarly discussions;
— information culled from non-scholarly publications (popular books and magazines, travel guides, newspapers etc.).

   If no reliable translation of a primary text to be included in the database exists, a new translation must be prepared, preferably in collaboration with a member of the board of consultants.

5. Compilation and Management of the Database (top)

5.1 Compilation Strategy (top)
In view of the vast amount of data to be entered into the database, it is clear that an efficient compilation strategy is needed if the work is to be completed within reasonable time. The data relevant to Melammu fall into two major types, which must be approached differently.

5.1.1 Easily Identifiable Data (top)
Many penetrating and well-documented scholarly studies analyze and discuss data that are clearly relevant to the database; in addition, many ancient sources contain relatively easily identifiable pertinent data. Such data can be assembled and systematically entered by a limited number of research assistants specifically hired for this purpose. While it is difficult to estimate the amount of data to be gathered in this way, it certainly constitutes a very significant portion of all information to be included in Melammu. By employing three to four assistants simultaneously, the work of excerpting such data can be completed within a few years (see section 5.2.1 below).

5.1.2 Scattered Data (top)
An unknown quantity of other relevant data of course remains scattered in published and unpublished primary sources and secondary literature. Such scattered data may be well-known to specialists but are very difficult to identify and collect by systematic searching. Hence, it is essential that scholars who come across such data absent from the database contribute their findings o Melammu. Submitting data does not take much time, and a system of bonuses has been created for outside contributors (see section 5.3 below).

5.1.3 Collaboration with Other Projects (top) and Institutions
Obviously, collaboration with other projects, research groups and institutions engaged in research related to the Melammu project may substantially help in the compilation process. This option will be discussed in detail in the annual meeting of the project in October 1999.

5.2 Systematic Data Entry (top)
5.2.1 Research Assistants (top)
The primary task of a research assistant is to go systematically through scholarly literature and primary sources relevant to the Melammu project, extract data from them, and convert them into entries to be sent to the database manager. The technical aspects of the work are described in section 7 below.
   The assistant works under a member of the board of consultants who acts as his advisor and supervisor. Before the work begins, the assistant and the supervisor should devise a work plan (in practice, a list of publications to be excerpted) and a realistic timetable for its completion, copies of which should be sent to the steering committee (see 5.6 below). It is recommended that modern studies and primary sources be equally represented in the work plan. If ancient texts are referred to in a study, the assistant should routinely check the original source and use it rather than the study, excerpting the relevant passage and referring to the study in the bibliography. Of course, the relevant passage in the study can also be included as a separate entry depending on the case. The chairman of the steering committee should be kept informed of the progress of the work through periodic reports.
   As of the writing of this document, Melammu has one research assistant working on an experimental basis. Further assistants will be hired as soon as possible. It is estimated that at least three to four assistants will be needed to make the database fully operational within three to four years.

5.2.2 Invited Contributors (top)
The articles on Mesopotamian imperial culture (see 4.1 above) will be written by invited specialists who will be paid for their contributions. The articles will be of standard format and none of them may be longer than 300 words (including bibliography).
   The writing of the articles will start as soon as funding is available and it is hoped that all the keywords in Appendix 1 A will be covered by the end of 2000.

5.3 Outside Contributors (top)
In order to incorporate scattered or otherwise inaccessible data relevant to the database, Melammu invites all scholars specializing in the represented disciplines to submit items to the database. Contributions can be accepted from the moment the database has been opened for public use. Students are welcome to contribute, but they must check the relevance and accuracy of the data with their teacher or a senior scholar before submitting and provide the name of the person consulted together with the data. Contributions are not accepted from non-specialists.

5.3.1 How to Contribute (top)
Contributing to Melammu is easy and does not take much time. Suppose one notices that a piece of information (e.g., a passage in an ancient text or an illustration) which belongs in the database is not included in it. One can simply photocopy the item, write a source reference and a brief explanatory note on it, and mail it to the database manager, who will ask for further details or clarifications if necessary. The information can also be sent by Internet (see section 6.4) or by e-mail, in which case the conventions explained below in section 7.3 should be observed. For examples of entries submitted in simple "raw" format see Appendix 2. Each accepted contribution earns a bonus (see 5.3.2).
   Of course, if there is no time pressure, it would help if the instructions in section 7 regarding the preparation of a standard entry could be taken into consideration when submitting the data. It is clear that the more "clean" the submitted data are, the more time can be saved in converting them into proper database entries. Entries submitted using the form on the web page will be correctly “pre-edited” providing the instructions on the page are followed.

5.3.2 Bonuses (top)
Contributors receive discounts on publications issued by the State Archives of Assyria project (SAA Studies, SAA Cuneiform Texts, SAA Bulletin, PNA, Assyria 1995), which can be very substantial depending on the number of the items contributed. Each contributed and accepted item entitles the contributor to a 1% discount up to a maximum of 40% (= 40 contributed items). In order not to undercut sales of recently issued books, discounts are granted only on books more than two years old. Discounted books must be ordered directly from the SAA project and paid for by direct bank transfer to the project's bank account; normal VAT and postage charges will apply. A complete and up-to-date listing of SAA publications is to be found at the project's web site:

5.3.3 Contact Data (top)
All data received will be ascribed to contributors in the database entries. In order to facilitate communication between the compilers of Melammu and to add to the usefulness of the database, contributors are asked to provide their mail and/or email addresses and phone and/or fax numbers when submitting database material. These data will be stored in a file which can be accessed by the users of the database with a simple click on the contributor's name. Contributors who do not wish their contact data to be publicly accessible should notify the database manager.

5.4 Database Manager (top)
The project needs a full-time database manager to receive contributions to Melammu, edit them, convert the edited data into database entries, manage the database and respond to user feedback (see sections 6.4 and 7.4 below). In addition, the database manager is supposed to help in the organization the Melammu symposia and in the publication of their proceedings.

5.5 Consultants (top)
The consultants, all of whom are internationally recognized experts in their respective fields of specialization, guarantee the scientific quality and reliability of the database. While they are not directly involved in data entry proper, they will be consulted by the database manager whenever there is any doubt about the relevance or pertinence of a submitted item. In addition, they can be consulted by the research assistants in matters falling within their fields of expertise, e.g., in the translation of primary texts lacking adequate English edition. To reduce the work load of individual consultants, the board includes several experts in each discipline represented in Melammu. The number of consultants is not limited and suggestions for additional board members are welcome.
   The consultants can at any time make suggestions to the steering committee regarding material to be entered into the database. Such suggestions should be sent to the chairman of the steering committee, who will implement them after consultation with other committee members and the research assistants.

5.6 Steering Committee (top)
The steering committee guides and represents the project and helps secure financial and other kinds of support for it. The committee convenes once a year at the annual symposium of Melammu. Each committee member can at any time present suggestions for improving the project or redirecting its activities (e.g., prioritizing the entry of a particular class of data). Such motions, if realizable, will be implemented by the chairman after consultation with other committee members without the necessity of arranging an extra meeting. Committee members should receive copies of the work plans of the research assistants, and they are entitled to modify them if necessary. Suggestions for modifications should be sent to the chairman.
   The chairman is expected to do his best to further the objectives of the project and is responsible for organizing the annual symposium during his term. In addition, he should be in active contact with the steering committee and supporters of Melammu and keep them informed of the progress of the project.
   Though it is hoped that individual committee members will serve for as long as possible, any committee member can resign at any time by notifying the chairman. The vacancy will be filled at the next annual meeting, which will also elect a new chairman and vice chairman for the project for the following year. All members of the project are eligible for chairmanship and vice chairmanship. If both are elected from outside the steering committee, the previous chair or his deputy will resign from the committee to keep its size manageable.

6. General Plan of the Database (top)

Melammu resembles in its concept a regular encyclopaedia. Both consist of entries arranged under keywords, have a table of contents, and come with illustrations, bibliographies and cross-references. When completed, the whole work or parts of it can if desired be published in book form as a multivolume encyclopaedia. However, Melammu differs from a normal encyclopaedia in three important respects. First, the entries in it are not traditional encyclopaedia articles but for the most part are primary data extracted from both ancient sources and modern studies. Second, Melammu contains no indices, but the data in it can be quickly accessed by a keyword search or by a word/name/string search. Third, Melammu is continuously expandable and modifiable, and new entries and corrections to it can also be submitted by its users.

6.1 Keywords (top)
Since Melammu deals with the continuity, transformation and diffusion of Mesopotamian imperial culture, the starting point of the database is a breakdown of the imperial culture into its constituent elements. A classified list of such elements, reduced to keywords, is presented in Appendix 1 A. All entries in the database will be tied to this list (or an expanded and revised version of it), which will serve as the organizational framework of the database and as a point of orientation and reference for the users and compilers of Melammu. The keyword list is by no means yet in its final shape and the readers of this document are strongly urged to send comments, criticisms and additions at this stage. Any number of new keywords can be created and incorporated in the list, which is infinitely expandable.

6.2 Entries (top)
The individual database entries are pieces of textual or graphic information documenting or relating to the continuity, transformation and diffusion of Mesopotamian imperial culture. A text entry usually consists of an excerpt from an ancient text or a modern scholarly article or monograph; a graphic entry can be a photograph, drawing, map, groundplan or diagram. Text entries can include any number of illustrations, and graphic entries are always accompanied by explanatory captions. Each entry contains a source reference and bibliographic information. Whenever possible, the entry also includes contact data and hypertext links to other databases or sources of information.
   In principle, there is no upper limit to the number or size of individual entries. However, in order to prevent the database from becoming excessively cumbersome and time-consuming to use, it is essential to keep the text entries within reasonable limits (between 25-80 words or 2-7 lines of text, as illustrated in Appendix 2). Entries that cannot be reduced to this size without losing valuable information have to be entered twice, both in unabridged (document) and abridged (abstract) form, see section 7.1.1 below. The abstract will be used in data search and will be displayed after the search has been completed, but the full document can also be viewed if desired by clicking on the source reference of the displayed text. By the same token, all illustrations will be displayed in reduced size only at first but can be viewed in full (slower-to-load) size if desired.

6.3 Data Search (top)
Each database session will open with the Melammu home page appearing on the screen. The home page contains a menu displaying the search options and other relevant information. The database can be searched either by keywords (topical search) or by words, names and strings. The user selects the desired option by clicking on the appropriate (highlighted) item in the menu.

6.3.1 Keyword search (top)
If keyword search is selected, a list featuring the section headings of the keyword list will appear on the screen. Clicking on a heading will return all the keywords in the corresponding section. The user initiates the search by clicking on the selected keyword. The results of the search (all entries tied to the keyword, with texts and illustrations, captions, bibliographic references, and other supplementary information) will appear on the screen in chronological order. As explained above, any abridged texts and illustrations can now be viewed in full size if so desired.
   It is also possible to narrow down the search to a certain period, source type, or channel of transmission, by selecting the appropriate section heading in the keyword menu.

6.3.2 Word, name or string search (top)
If word, name or string search is selected, the user will be prompted for the search item. The search will begin after the item has been typed and entered by pressing the RETURN key. The user will receive a list of all occurrences of the search item in the database with source references and a few words of context to the right and left of the search item (centered and highlighted). Clicking on any source reference will display the full text of the corresponding entry.

6.4 Online Data Submission (top)
The database will be constantly enlarged and updated by adding to and modifying the data already entered. Any user can easily submit additions or corrections by clicking on "New data" in the home-page menu and filling out the form subsequently displayed. The data submitted will be sent to the database manager who, after verification, will incorporate it in the database. For details of data submission see sections 5 and 7.

6.5 The Language of the Database (top)
The basic language of the database is English, although some data can also be entered in other modern languages (see 7.1.1). Texts in ancient languages or scripts cannot be used for data search and are therefore not included in the database, but full bibliographic references to the best editions s well as hypertext links to existing on-line editions are attached to each text entry whenever available.

7. Content, Preparation and Structure of Database Entries (top)

7.1 Basic Data (top)
7.1.1 Text/Abstract and Document (top)
A "text" is an extract from an ancient written source or from a modern study. The length of a text should not exceed 7 lines or about 80 words. Longer extracts (even entire compositions) can be included, but in that case an "abstract" must be prepared to serve as the text proper (see section 6.2 above), while the unabridged original is entered separately as a "document." Texts (both extracts and abstracts) up to 10 lines or 120 words can however exceptionally be allowed depending on the case. Abstracts and documents should be clearly distinguished from each other by inserting the relevant word in square brackets at the beginning of the entry; see the examples in Appendix 2. For the rendering of special characters in foreign names and words, see section 7.3.
   All extracts from ancient texts, whether texts or documents, and all abstracts should be entered in English. Portions of modern studies entered as documents should be in the original language, if feasible. If the ancient text is not available in English translation or the modern study is not written in one of the major languages, an adequate English translation must be prepared, if necessary in collaboration with a Melammu consultant. All abstracts and translations will be signed by their authors.

7.1.2 Illustration (top)
An "illustration" can be a photograph, line drawing, map, groundplan or diagram related to a keyword. Illustrations can be submitted either in the original or in high-resolution photocopy, in which case they should be sent to the database manager for optical scanning, or in digital form, in which case they need not be sent if stored in an Internet file and the URL of the file is provided. All illustrations should be accompanied by brief English captions.

7.1.3 Bibliography (top)
Each text/illustration must be furnished with an indication of the source and other relevant bibliographic data (such as references to important studies and scholarly discussions). In each case only the best available and/or most recent editions and studies should be included. The references are to be given in abbreviated form (e.g., Burkert 1992:75-79), with full bibliographic details provided in a separate bibliography file. The entries in the bibliography file follow the conventions of the Chicago Manual of Style.

7.2 Supplementary Information (top)
In order to reduce the work load of the database manager who has to convert the data into database entries proper (see 7.4), it is desireable, though not absolutely necessary, that the entries already be provided with additional secondary information (type, summary, keyword(s), period/ date, bibliography, and possible channel of transmission and hypertext links) at the time of submission. Each such item of supplementary information should be written on a separate line and marked with an appropriate letter code (field identifier) followed by an equal sign (see section 7.4.2 and examples in Appendix 2 B 2). It is recommended that this be done systematically following the order in which the items are discussed below. A form for supplying the desired information in the correct order will be available on the Internet. If a particular piece of information (e.g., a channel of transmission) asked for on this form cannot be provided, it can simply be ignored.

7.2.1 Name (top) (N=)
A name for the entry, in practice the primary keyword under which it is to be found, e.g. "N=Mural crown."

7.2.2 Type (top) (T=)
The general category or type of the entry data (e.g., "T=iconography, symbol").

7.2.3 Keyword (top) (K=)
All keywords in Appendix 1 A that relate to the entry, with the corresponding numerical codes. If an appropriate keyword is not included in Appendix 1, the contributor may create a new one for the entry, to be written in CAPITAL LETTERS. There is no limit to the number of keywords per entry. The keyword should be entered in numerical form (e.g., "K=," not "K=Divine crown.")

7.2.4 Period and Date (top) (P=)
The period/era/chronological context to which the entry pertains, entered using the corresponding numerical code (see Appendix 1 B; e.g., "P=13", meaning Seleucid Empire). If a particular period/era is not to be found in Appendix 1 B, it should be pointed out to the database manager by supplying the desired period in CAPITAL LETTERS without numerical code. If the entry can be dated exactly, the date should be appended to the period in parentheses (e.g., "P=13 (243 BC)").

7.2.5 Channel of Transmission (top) (C=)
If the entry contains clear evidence of a channel through which Mesopotamian cultural elements were transmitted to another culture, its existence should be noted according to the keywords listed in Appendix 1 C. If a particular channel is not found in Appendix 1 C, it should be pointed out to the database manager by supplying the desired channel in CAPITAL LETTERS. Otherwise the numerical codes in Appendix 1 C should be used, e.g., "C=7.5.8" (referring to Emperor Elagabalus).

7.2.6 Summary (top) (S=)
A one-sentence summary of the content and/or import of the entry. The formulation of the summary is free and does not have to cover all the information included the entry.

7.2.7 Authorship Indication (top) (A=)
The name of the person (research assistant or individual scholar) who contributed the entry, e.g. "A=A. Piras". Cf. section 5.3.3 above.

7.2.8 Hypertext Links (top) (L=)
If the entry text is available in more complete form elsewhere on the Internet, this should be indicated in the entry, e.g. "L="

7.2.9 Remarks (top) (R=)
Miscellaneous remarks, e.g. comments on the relevance of an entry.

7.3 Preparing Material for the Database (top) (by R. M. Whiting)
7.3.1 Normal Text (top)
To try to eliminate confusion about entering material for the Melammu database, the following are the most important points.

   - Use 7-bit ASCII text only
   - NO word processor text
   - NO special fonts

   7-bit ASCII is the normal keyboard character set (the first 128 characters, less the first 31 control characters). There should be no extended ASCII or control characters in the text for the database.
   Similarly, text for the database should not be prepared with a word processor, but with a text editor. Word processors embed formatting codes in the file which cannot be used in the database. If a word processor is used to create database files, use only 7-bit ASCII characters and save the file as ASCII text only.

7.3.2 Special Characters (top)
Special fonts are nice for word processors and the printed page, but they cannot be used in the database. If special characters are needed, unique character strings must be created to represent these characters in the text. The database management software will convert these unique character strings to the proper characters for display, but in a word processor file with special fonts, the proper characters cannot be disentangled from the formatting codes.
   It does not matter what character strings are used for special characters, so long as:
1) Each special character has a unique representation.
2) This representation is not used for anything else and cannot appear accidentally elsewhere in the text.
3) A record is available of what special character is represented by a particular character string.
   The SAA project uses for its Assyrian database the following symbols to represent characters for which no ASCII representation is available:

a) Akkadian Phonemes

   lower-case Tsade     $      $almu
      "       Shin      &      &arru
      "       Teth      #      #uppu
   upper-case Tsade     \      \idu_nu
      "       Shin      `      `ama&
      "       Tethv     %      %ebe_tu
              Aleph     '      ra'su

b) Vowel Length, Accented Vowels

   vowel (V) with macron        V    kaba_su
     "        "   circumflex    V^   Nabu^
     "        "   acute accent  V2   de2tente
     "        "   grave accent  V3   citta3

c) Other conventions

   superscript 'd' (dingir)  d=     d=AMAR.UTU
      "        'm' (mister)  1=     1=ba-ni-i
   half brackets             < >    <a>-na
   supplied sign             ( )    na-(bi)-u
   erroneously added sign    (( ))  na-((na))-bu-u

   Many of these signs are used in transliterations where these signs cannot have any other value, but in mixed text longer character strings would be needed. For example, ' alone could not be used for aleph as it could easily be mistaken for a single quotation mark or vice versa. The SAA system also has no convention for representing vowels with dieresis (umlaut). To reiterate, it is not important what conventions are adopted at any particular stage so long as the three conditions that were stated above are adhered to.
   Thus o with umlaut could be represented by a string like o\" or by the SGML code ö (or by any other unique character string). The database management software will convert the strings to the desired output character.
   It will be best if sample entries can be sent to Helsinki for evaluation so that any problems can be isolated and dealt with at an early stage. Such entries can be sent by e-mail (since they will be 7-bit ASCII files) and can be evaluated quickly. A later version of this document will contain a complete list of the character strings to be used for the representation of special characters, based on feedback received from the contributors.

   Special type can be indicated by the following conventions:

   begin italics      {      {Asugallatu
   begin bold         )      )
   return to normal   }      {Asgelatas}
   begin Greek type   <gr>   <gr>AsklepioV
   end Greek type     </gr>  <gr>AsklepioV</gr>

7.4 Editing Submitted Data (top)
All material for the database, whether prepared by the assistants or submitted by outside contributors, should be sent to the database manager, who checks and edits it and converts it to the format in which it is stored in the database, using a computer program written for the purpose. For an example of a fully edited entry, ready for the conversion run, see Appendix 2 B 2. The database manager may correct or reject any submitted data in accordance with the advice of the consultants, and may send raw entries to assistants for preliminary editing.

7.4.1 Entry Number (top)
Each accepted entry receives an asterisked sequential number (SEQNO), to be inserted at the beginning of the entry as its first line. The SEQNO is always an eight-digit number, with leading zeros added by the computer program as necessary, but in order to avoid mistakes it must be entered without the leading zeros. The database manager assigns the SEQNOs while editing the entries and keeps track of them to make sure that all of them are unique and in sequential order.

7.4.2 Field Identifiers, Keywords and Links (top)
The entry is then checked to make sure that all secondary information has been appropriately marked with relevant letter codes (field identifiers). If not, these codes must now be added according to the system explained below in 7.5.2. Each keyword, period and channel has to be represented by the corresponding numerical codes listed in Appendix 1. Items missing in these lists and submitted by contributors in CAPITAL LETTERS must now be incorporated in the master list and provided with appropriate numerical codes.
   It must also be checked that items to be marked for links to other files have been encoded appropriately. These items include abstracts of text and studies (to be linked to the corresponding documents), bibliographic references (to be linked to the bibliography files), names of authors and contributors (to be linked to the contact data file), and illustrations (to be linked to the graphic files). The hypertext marking of these items will be carried out automatically by the conversion program once they have been provided with the appropriate field identifiers.

7.4.3 Conversion into Database Format (top)
After a sufficient number of entries have been edited, they are run through a computer program which will convert them into the desired database format.

7.5 Database Entry Format (top)
7.5.1 Record Structure (top)
Each database entry consists of a number of consecutive records, which basically correspond to consecutive lines of written text. The maximum length of each record is 80 characters. Each record is divided into three consecutive fields of fixed length: SEQNO (sequential number of the entry), FI (field identifier) and TEXT (text field). SEQNO occupies the first 8 character positions/columns of a record (1-8), FI the following three (9-11), and TEXT the rest (12-80). TEXT largely corresponds to the data submitted to the database manager. SEQNO and FI are generated from data supplied by the database manager and inserted at the beginning of each record by the conversion program.
   All records in the database thus have the following structure:

00000001N @Mural Crown
| | |

7.5.2 FI (top)
The FI specifies the nature of the text field and typically consists of a capital letter followed by a blank space and the @-sign. The space between the letters and the @-sign is automatically replaced by a sequential number whenever there is more than one successive but separate entry of the same type, e.g. illustrations or bibliographic references. See in more detail just below.

   Key to the capital letters (field identifiers) occurring in the FI field:

   N = Name
   T = Type
   K = Keyword
   P = Period/date
   C = Channel
   S = Summary
     = text/abstract
   D = Document
   I = Illustration
   B = Bibliographic reference
   W = Writer
   L = hypertext Link
   R = Remarks

   The nature and contents of the relevant data fields are explained in sections 7.1-2 above. Entry text proper is not specially marked and the FI field is left entirely blank except for the @-sign at the beginning of each paragraph..
   Some of the field identifiers can occur more than once because each entry can have several (as many as needed) illustrations, bibliographic references, and hypertext links. Each separate entry in these categories should be on a separate line with its own field identifier. This will allow the "front end" program to identify multiple entries in these categories immediately and to treat each separately but in an identical manner. I-entries will be converted into a hypertext pointer to the graphics file and a caption to accompany it. B-entries will be expanded from the bibliography file. L-entries will be converted into a hypertext link and the text identifying it that will appear in the viewable file. Other field identifiers should only occur once per entry.

7.5.3 Two Samples of the Database Entry Format (top)
00000001N @Mural Crown
00000001T @Iconography, Symbol
00000001K @,,
00000001P @14
00000001C @7.5
00000001S @Mural crown of Assyrian queens becomes the symbol of Cybele/Tyche
00000001I @decius1d.jpg;Detail of the Tyche of Antioch from a coin of Trajan
00000001I @Decius (AD 249-251).
00000001I2@genant1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on a coin of that city (AD 312).
00000001I3@justin1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on the reverse of a Greek Imperial
00000001I3@(Roman Provincial) bronze coin.
00000001  @The mural crown is attested in Assyrian reliefs as a device worn
00000001   by Assyrian queens as "images" of Mullissu, the queen of heaven.
00000001   The crown is later associated strongly with the Anatolian Cybele,
00000001   a mother and earth goddess, and with the Greek Tyche, goddess of
00000001   fortune (called by the Romans Fortuna), especially as the patroness
00000001   of a city. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Tyche of
00000001   Antioch, a well known statue of whom was represented in painting
00000001   and on coins from the first century BC until well into Byzantine
00000001   (Christian) times.
00000001B @Ho\"rig 1979:129-34
00000001B2@Sayles 1994:14-15
00000001B3@Parpola 1997:xcvii n.160
00000001A @R.M. Whiting
00000001L @;Tyche

00000002N @Asklepios, Aesculapius
00000002T @Name, word
00000002K @5.5.1, 5.5.2,, 5.5.3,
00000002P @8, 14
00000002S @The name of the Greek god of medicine and healing derives from the
00000002S @Akkadian word for "chief physician".
00000002I @coinasc1.jpg;The reverse of this silver denarius shows
00000002I @Aesculapius (god of medicine) standing holding a staff with
00000002I @a serpent entwined around it, a globe at his feet. This type
00000002I @was struck in AD 214 on the occasion of a visit by Caracalla
00000002I @to Pergamum to seek a cure from the shrine of Aesculapius.
00000002I @The obverse shows a mature bust of Caracalla.
00000002  @(<gr>AsklepioV</gr>) is the name of the Greek god of
00000002   medicine and healing (called by the Romans Aesculapius).
00000002   The name is taken by Burkert to derive from Akkadian
00000002   {asugall}({at}){u} "chief physician" which is in turn a
00000002   borrowing from Sumerian ) (with the same meaning).
00000002   {Asugallatu} was an epithet of Gula, the Mesopotamian
00000002   goddess of healing and medicine. The word went through a form
00000002   {Asgelatas}, an aspect of Apollo worshipped on the island
00000002   of Anaphe near Thera with a festival called {Asgelaia}.
00000002  @Asklepios, the son of Apollo, was not considered the god of
00000002   healing until the 5th century, and the Greeks placed his origin
00000002   in Thessaly.
00000002B @Burkert 1992:75-79
00000002L @;Asklepios

7.6 Database Files (top)
All illustrations (graphics files) will be kept as separate entities with pointers to them in the database. The other entries will be kept both as separate entities (to enable a speedy retrieval of individual entries) and as a combined single file (to enable word and name searches).
   Bibliographic and contact data are kept as separate files so that the relevant information can be entered in the database in abbreviated form and expanded at run time.


Appendix 1. Keywords (top)

NB: The following list is by no means exhaustive or final and will be modified and expanded on the basis of feedback received both before and during the actual compilation of the database. A separate list of the keywords in alphabetic order is available and will be provided on request.

A. Constituent Elements of Mesopotamian Imperial Culture (top)
1. Religious and ideological doctrines and imagery (top)
1.1   Cosmogonic and cosmological ideas
1.1.1   Primal undifferentiated unity   Primal father: sweet-water ocean (Apsu)   Primal mother: salt-water ocean (Tiamat)
1.1.2   Emergence of consciousness (Mummu)
1.1.3   Emergence of binary oppositions   Light vs. darkness   Purity vs. sin   Perfection vs. imperfection   Good vs. evil   Right vs. wrong/left   Life vs. death   Spirit vs. matter   Sweet water vs. salt water   Unity vs. plurality   Universe of heaven vs. universe of earth
1.1.4   Emergence of gods
1.1.5   Emergence of chaos   Tiamat = angry sea = dragon   Creation of demons
1.1.6   Primordial battle and defeat of the Dragon
1.1.7   Establishment of cosmos   Fixing places for gods   Binding forces of evil   Building the heavenly city
1.1.8   Creation of physical world   Creation of man   Blending spirit and matter   Original sin

1.2   Human history
1.2.1   Three progressively deteriorating world ages
1.2.2   Descent of kingship from heaven
1.2.3   Antediluvian age   Seven andetiluvian kings   Seven andetiluvian cities   Seven sages   Longevity
1.2.4   Deluge   Sin = noise of mankind   Destruction of mankind through flood   Rescue of pious wise man
1.2.5   Postdiluvian age   Shortened life time

1.3   Kingship as divine institution
1.3.1   Divine origin of kingship
1.3.2   Seed of kingship
1.3.3   King as god's representative upon earth   Chosen by god   Called by god   Created by god   Tree planted by god   Son of god   Image of god   Consubstantiality with god   Perfect man   Incarnation of Ninurta (divine saviour)   Incarnation of Tammuz (divine redeemer)
1.3.4   Mission of the king   Good shepherd   Light of the world   Righteous judge
1.3.5   Attributes of the king   Omnipotent   Omniscient   Wise   Righteous   Merciful   Lover of mankind   Empowered to raise and abase   Empowered to give life and death
1.3.6   Royal titulary   Great king   King of the universe   King of the lands   King of kings   Priest
1.3.7   Sanctity of kingship   Royal purity   Royal aura (melammu, šalummatu)
1.3.8   Apotheosis of the king
1.3.9   Deification of the king

1.4   Concept of god
1.4.1   Unity of god (monotheism/henotheism/cosmotheism)   God = universe of heaven   God = totality of gods   God's omnipotence   God's transcendence   God's immanence
1.4.2   Trinity of god   Divine Triad: Father, Mother, Son   Heavenly Father   Divine King   Creator of visible world   Holy Spirit   Spirit of God   Saviour   Son of god
1.4.3   Plurality of god (polytheism)   Emanation of gods   Creation of gods   Hierarchy of gods   Great gods   Anu (Heaven)   Ea (Wisdom)   Sin (Prudence)   Shamash (Justice)   Kittu (Truth)   Mesharu (Righteousness)   Adad (Glory, Thunder)   Marduk (Lordship, Mercy)   Ishtar (Love)   Mullissu (Queen of Heaven)   Sherua   Tashmetu   Nanaya   Kubaba (Cybele)   Shala (Hera)   Gula   Nabû/Ninurta (Victory)   Nergal (Power, Destruction)   Seven planetary gods   Sin (Moon)   Shamash (Sun)   Adad (Saturn)   Marduk (Jupiter)   Ishtar (Venus)   Nabû/Ninurta (Mercury)   Nergal (Mars)   Gods as divine powers   Gods as divine names   Gods as divine weapons   Gods as numbers   Gods as tree   Gods as garments

1.5   Celestial imagery
1.5.1   Pole connecting heaven and earth
1.5.2   Three-layered heaven
1.5.3   Seven-layered heaven
1.5.4   Planetary spheres
1.5.5   Heavenly city
1.5.6   Heavenly palace
1.5.7   Heavenly court
1.5.8   Celestial council
1.5.9   Throne of god
1.5.10   Heavenly book of life
1.5.11   Lamp of god
1.5.12   Divine chariot
1.5.13   Ladders to heaven
1.5.14   Gate to heaven
1.5.15   Gatekeepers of heaven

1.6   Netherworld imagery
1.6.1   Netherworld = Earth
1.6.2   Netherworld = Mountain
1.6.3   Netherworld = Prison
1.6.4   Netherworld = Foreign land
1.6.5   Netherworld river
1.6.6   Netherworld boatman
1.6.7   Seven gates of the netherworld
1.6.8   Gatekeepers of the netherworld
1.6.9   Infernal gods = Gods of the earth

2. Religious and ideological symbols and iconographic motifs (top)
2.1   Astral and celestial symbols and imagery
2.1.1   Sun   Winged solar disk
2.1.2   Moon   Crescent   Full moon
2.1.3   Eight-pointed star
2.1.4   Seven stars (Pleiades)
2.1.5   Starlet (Rosette)
2.1.6   Rainbow
2.1.7   Lightning

2.2   Cosmic symbols and imagery
2.2.1   Mountain
2.2.2   Ziggurat
2.2.3   Fire
2.2.4   Air
2.2.5   Water   Sweet water   Salt water   Streams emerging from vase or fountain
2.2.6   Earth
2.2.7   Desert

2.3   Mineral symbols
2.3.1   Metals   Gold   Silver   Lead   Iron   Copper   Bronze
2.3.2   Stones   Alabaster   Marble   Lapis lazuli   Serpentine   Haematite

2.4   Botanical symbols, imagery and iconographic motifs
2.4.1   Garden   Jewel garden
2.4.2   Trees   Tree of life   Stylized tree   Sunflower-tree   Candelabrum-shaped tree   Anthropomorphic tree   Date palm   Cosmic tree   Mes-tree   Almond tree   Cedar   Cypress   Olive tree   Pine tree   Poplar   Willow
2.4.3   Fruits, flowers and parts of trees   Palmette   Pomegranate   Pine Cone   Garland   Lotus   Lily

2.5   Animal/theriomorphic symbols and iconographic motifs
2.5.1   Mammals   Bull   Wild bull   Cow   Cow and calf   Deer and calf   Stag   Horse   Sheep   Ewe and lamb   Camel   Cat   Dog   Fox   Goat   Ibex   Lion
2.5.2   Birds   Cock   Crow and Raven   Dove   Duck   Eagle   Ostrich   Owl   Partridge   Swallow   Vulture   Walking bird
2.5.3   Reptiles and insects   Centipede   Scorpion   Snake   Spider   Bee   Fly   Gnat
2.5.4   Aquatic animals   Crab   Fish   Turtle   Shell   Conch
2.5.5   Composite beings   Lion-pawed dragon (Mušhuššu)   Man-bull (Kusariqqu)   Man-fish (Kululu)   Fish-man carrying cone and bucket (Apkallu, “sage”)   Eagle-headed man carrying cone and bucket (sage)   Winged man carrying cone and bucket (sage)   Scorpion-man (Girtablilu)   Lion-eagle (Anzû)   Fish-goat (Šuhurmašu)   Winged human-headed bull (Aladlammu)   Winged human-headed cow (Apsasu)   Winged horse (Anzû/Pegasus)   Centaur   Unicorn   Sphinx

2.6   Human/divine/anthropomorphic symbols, imagery and iconographic motifs
2.6.1   Female   Nude goddess   Armed goddess with wings   Pregnant woman/goddess   Mother suckling child   Virgin   Prostitute   Lady in window (Kililu)
2.6.2   Male   Nude hero with locks (lahmu)   Armed hero with wings   Youthful god struggling with bulls   Youthful god struggling with ostrichs   Youthful god shooting unicorn   Youthful god shooting winged horse   Mythological scenes   Killing of Humbaba   Killing of Bull of Heaven
2.6.3   Body parts   Beard   Ear   Left ear   Right ear   Eye   Foot   Right foot   Left foot   Hand   Right hand   Left hand   Penis   Vagina and uterus

2.7   Symbolism of weapons, tools and implements
2.7.1   Weapons and tools   Arrow   Bow   Dagger   Lance/spear   Mace   Net   Scepter   Shepherd's staff   Scimitar   Sword
2.7.2   Implements   Bottle   Bucket   Ladder   Lamp   Mirror   Scales   Spindle

2.8   Symbolism of jewellery and dress
2.8.1   Crowns and headdresses   Divine (horned) crown   Royal crown/tiara   Diadem   Mural crown
2.8.2   Jewellery   Earrings   Bracelets   Bangles/ankle rings
2.8.3   Garments   Veil   Star dress   Loincloth   Belt

2.9   Symbolism of gestures
2.9.1   Hand gestures   Prayer with uplifted hands   Prayer with crossed hands   Prayer with opened palms   Raised right hand   Shaking of hands   Slapping of hands
2.9.2   Pointed index finger
2.9.3   Trampling foot
2.9.4   Prostration
2.9.5   Kissing   Kissing the mouth   Kissing the ground

2.10   Abstract symbols
2.10.1   Cross   Maltese cross
2.10.2   Circle   Concentric circles

2.11   Symbolism of colours
2.11.1   White
2.11.2   Black
2.11.3   Blue
2.11.4   Red
2.11.5   Yellow/Green
2.11.6   Orange

3. Religious festivals, cults, rituals and practices (top)
3.1   Public festivals
3.1.1   Spring New year's festival (Nisan/vernal equinox)   Procession to Akitu house
3.1.2   Marriage of Nabû (Iyyar/April)
3.1.3   Festival of Tammuz (Tammuz/summer solstice)   Wailing of Tammuz   Healing of deadly sick
3.1.4   Festival of Ishtar (Elul)
3.1.5   Autumn New Year's festival (Tishri/autumnal equinox)
3.1.6   Race of Nabû (Christmas/winter solstice)   Victory over Anzû and Asakku (sin and death)   Good tidings (euangelion)
3.1.7   Royal hunt   Hunting park (paradeison)
3.1.8   Royal entry
3.1.9   Triumph

3.2   Cult of Ishtar
3.2.1   Doctrine of salvation   Heavenly origin of the soul   Descent/fall of the divine spirit   Loss of virtues/garments   Spiritual death = nakedness   Repentance
3.2.1.Prayer   Divine grace   Spiritual helper/rescuer   Bread of life (word of god)   Water of life (baptism)   Spiritual rebirth   Ascent of the soul   Union with god   Wedding night   Soul = Bride   God = Bridegroom   Redemption   Innocent sufferer   Resurrection
3.2.2   Devotees of Ishtar   Effeminates (assinnu)   Eunuch devotees (kurgarru/gallos)
3.2.3   Ecstatic techniques   Asceticism   Fasting and weeping   Self-flagellation   Self-mutilation   Intoxicating music and dance
3.2.4   Transsexuality/androgyny   Self-castration   Transvetitism
3.2.5   Possession by god/frenzy
3.2.6   Prophecy

3.3   Service of god
3.3.1   Prostration before god
3.3.2   Illuminating god's face
3.3.3   Purifying the temple   Censers   Torches   Incensation
3.3.4   Feeding god   Setting the offering table (bread, fruit, nuts etc.)   Libations (wine, beer, honey and oil)   Animal offerings (sheep, ram, kids, ox, bull)   Burnt offerings (maqlutu)
3.3.5   Lamentations and chants   Choirs of castrated singers
3.3.6   Psalms and songs
3.3.7   Dressing and bathing gods
3.3.8   Lighting candles
3.3.9   Processions of divine images
3.3.10   Circumambulating the temple
3.3.11   Giving presents
3.3.12   Kissing the ground

3.4   Secular rituals
3.4.1   Marriage   Crown of bride   Veiling of bride   Wedding ring
3.4.2   Funeral ritual   Funeral display   Washing the feet   Wailing   Circumambulation of bed   Offerings to infernal gods   Breaking of glass   Funeral burning

4. Religious and philosophical literature and poetry (top)
4.1   Myths
4.1.1   Adapa (ascent to heaven)
4.1.2   Atrahasis (flood)
4.1.3   Descent of Ishtar
4.1.4   Enuma eliš (creation)
4.1.5   Erra
4.1.6   Etana (ascent to heaven)
4.1.7   Gilgameš (search for life)
4.1.8   Nergal and Ereshkigal
4.1.9   Ninurta myths   Ninurta and Anzû   Ninurta and Asakku (Lugal ud melambi nirgal)   Return of Ninurta (Angimdimma)   Bin šar dadmi
4.1.10   Theomachia myths

4.2   Royal epics and legends
4.2.1   Sargon legends
4.2.2   Naram-Sin legends
4.2.3   Tukulti-Ninurta epic
4.2.4   Sargon II epic
4.2.5   Assurbanipal epic
4.2.6   Nebuchadnezzar epics

4.3   Wisdom literature
4.3.1   Philosophical and moral treatises   Babylonian Job (Ludlul bel nemeqi)   Advice to the Prince
4.3.2   Sapiential and educational treatises   Counsels of wisdom (Ummanu marshu imallik)   Examenstext A (Ummanu maršu isanniq)   In Praise of the Scribal Art
4.3.3   Dialogues and debates   Theodicy (Ašiš gana luqbika)   Tamarisk and palm (Iškar bini)
4.3.4   Fables and tales   Fable of fox (Iškar šelebi)   Poor man of Nippur (Mar Nippuri katû u lapnu)
4.3.5   Satires   Master and slave (Ardu šimanni)   Jester (Aluzinnu)
4.3.6   Proverb collections   Instructions of Shuruppak   Ahiqar   Series of Sidu
4.3.7   Novels   Netherworld vision of the crown prince

4.4   Court poetry
4.4.1   Paeans
4.4.2   Royal panegyric hymns
4.4.3   Royal hymns to gods
4.4.4   Secular elegies
4.4.5   Royal epics

4.5   Religious poetry and hymnology
4.5.1   Ballads
4.5.2   Divine love lyrics
4.5.3   Elegies lamenting the death of Tammuz
4.5.4   Lamentations/penitential psalms   Eršahunga   Eršemma   taqribtu
4.5.5   Psalms/cultic songs

4.6   Poetic and literary devices
4.6.1   Meter
4.6.2   Syllable count
4.6.3   Rhyme
4.6.4   Alliteration and assonance
4.6.5   Parallelism membrorum
4.6.6   Repetition/refrain
4.6.7   Anaphora
4.6.8   Paronomasy
4.6.9   Parataxis
4.6.10   Antithesis
4.6.11   Chiasm
4.6.12   Climax
4.6.13   Acrostic
4.6.14   Simile
4.6.15   Allegory
4.6.16   Metaphor
4.6.17   Diglossia
4.6.18   Intertextuality

5. Scientific knowledge and scholarly lore (top)
5.1   Astrological and astronomical knowledge and theories
5.1.1   Circular (spherical?) model of cosmos   "Circular Astrolabe"
5.1.2   Three fixed-star zones
5.1.3   Zodiac   Hypsomata   Triplicities
5.1.4   19-year intercalation cycle
5.1.5   Eclipse periods   Saros   Exeligmos
5.1.6   Planetary periods   Venus   Mars   Jupiter   Saturn
5.1.7   Great Year
5.1.8   Mathematical astronomy   Linear zig-zag functions
5.1.9   Astronomical and astrological texts   Astronomical treatises (Mul Apin)   Star maps   Stellar distances   Star lists (astrolabes)   Great star list   Astrological reports   Astronomical diaries   Lunar ephemerids   Lunar tables   Planetary ephemerids   Planetary tables   Horoscopes

5.2   Omen interpretation
5.2.1   Celestial omens (Enuma Anu Enlil)
5.2.2   Terrestrial omens (Šumma alu)
5.2.3   Anomaly omens (Šumma izbu)
5.2.4   Hemerological and menological omens (Iqqur ipuš)
5.2.5   Dream omens (Zaqiqu)
5.2.6   Physiognomic omens (Alandimmû and Nigdimdimmû)
5.2.7   Speech omens (Kataduqqû)
    See also Mantic and Magic

5.3   Mantic
5.3.1   Extispicy   Purity requirements of haruspices (Enmeduranki)   Liver omens (Barutu)   Extispicy theory texts (Multabiltu)   Liver = counterpart of the cosmos   Names of organs = places or agents in physical world   Three-tiered triadic structure of liver   Left side = pars hostilis = negative   Right side = pars familiaris = positive   Middle = neuter   Liver models   Queries to Sun god   Extispicy reports
5.3.2   Lecanomancy
5.3.3   Psephomancy

5.4   Magic and exorcism
5.4.1   Incantation-prayers and rituals (Šuilla)
5.4.2   Apotropaic magic   Namburbi
5.4.3   Purification magic   Bit rimki   Bit sala' mê   Mouth-washing (mis pî)
5.4.4   Anti-witchcraft and anti-curse magic   Maqlû   Šurpu   Zikurudû   Namerimburrudû
5.4.5   Therapeutic magic   Diagnostic and prognostic omens (Enuma ana bet mar$i)   Exorcism   Utukku lemnutu   Asakku marsutu   Lamaštu   Soothing a baby   Zi-pa-incantations
5.4.6   Temple magic   Renewing a divine image   Renewing a temple   Mouth-opening (pit pî)   Ear-opening (pit uzni)
5.4.7   Practical magic (teppušma išallim)   Love charms   Potency charms (Shaziga)   Magic to secure brisk trade

5.5   Medicine and pharmacology
5.5.1   Patrons of medicine   Ninurta   Gula   Asklepios
5.5.2   Physicians   Chief physician
5.5.3   Diagnostic handbooks
5.5.4   Pharmaceutical handbooks   Shammu shikinshu   Uruanna
5.5.5   Minerological handbooks   Abnu shikinshu
5.5.6   Pharmacies
5.5.7   Medical recipes   Recipes against fever (Ummu)   Recipes against cough (Sualu)
5.5.8   Drugs and healers   Bandages   Drops   Fumigants   Ointments   Plasters   Potions   Pills   Suppositories   Surgical instruments   Tampons
5.5.9   Medical reports and letters
5.5.10   Medical terms
5.5.11   Hospitals   House of Gula

5.6   Lexicography and grammar
5.6.1   Dictionaries   Harra-hubullu   Nabnitu   Izi
5.6.2   Vocabularies   Emesal vocabulary
5.6.3   Synonym lists
5.6.4   Encyclopaedias   God lists (An-Anu)   Professions lists (Lu-amelu)
5.6.5   Syllabaries   Syllabary A and B   Diri
5.6.6   Grammars

5.7   Chronology and hemerology
5.7.1   Seven-day week   Beginning of day   Planetary days (Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Sun, Moon)   Weekly holiday (7th day)
5.7.2   Length of month   Beginning of month   Sighting of crescent   30-day month   29-day month
5.7.3   Month names (Nisan, Iyyar ...)
5.7.4   Length of year   Beginning of year   354-day lunar year   360-day cultic year   365-day solar year
5.7.5   Intercalation system   19-year intercalation cycle   Intercalary Adar   Intercalary Elul
5.7.6   Eponym dating   Eponym officials   Eponym lists   Selection of eponym (casting of lots)
5.7.7   Accession year
5.7.8   Chronometers   Clepsydra   Polos   Gnomon
5.7.9   Hemerologies   Abšegeda   Lists of auspicious dauys (Utukku/ume tabuti)
5.7.10   Royal menology   Inbu bel arhi

5.8   Mathematics
5.8.1   Number systems   Decimal system   Sexagesimal system   Place value notation
5.8.2   Zero
5.8.3   Pi
5.8.4   Negative numbers
5.8.5   Reciprocal numbers
5.8.6   Square roots
5.8.7   Cubic roots
5.8.8   Logarithms
5.8.9   Number series
5.8.10   Geometry   Plane geometry   Pythagorean theorem
5.8.11   Algebra   Binomial equations   Polynomial equations
5.8.12   Mathematical problem texts

5.9   Music and musical theory
5.9.1   Arithmetizing tuning theory   "Pythagorean" tuning   Scale patterns
5.9.2   Spiral-fifths tuning
5.9.3   Musical instruments   9-stringed lyre   Flute   Tambourine   Cymbal   Drums   Kettledrum

5.10   Esoteric lore and hermeneutics
5.10.1   Esoteric texts   "Silbenalphabet" (creation through syllables)   Inam gišhur ankia (esoteric numerology)   "Secrets of the great gods/heaven and earth"   Explanations of religious symbols and ritual acts   Birdcall text (symbolism of birds and their calls)   Words, names and texts written in numerical code   Numerical values of letters   Astronomical theory texts   Mathematical theory texts   Numbers of gods
5.10.2   Commentaries   Explanations of obsolete words ($âtu)   Explanations of hidden meanings of words (mukallimtu)   Oral scholarly tradition (maš'alati u šut pî)
5.10.3   Hermeneutical techniques   Gematria (substituting words for numbers or vice versa)   Notariqon (substituting words for syllables or vice versa)   Temura (playing with different readings of logograms)   Homophony   Homonymy   Allegory
5.10.4   Esoteric associations   heaven = fire   dove = mother goddess   cosmic soul = human soul   rainbow = bow of heaven (Anu) = deluge bow = weapon of Marduk   rainbow = penis = bow = bow of Ishtar   rainbow = Virgo = Venus = Bow Star = Rainbow Star   ziggurat = Ishtar   colours = planet(ary sphere)s = garments = divine powers   palmette = crown of heaven   right hand = shoulder = penis

5.11   Historiography
5.11.1   Royal annals
5.11.2   Historiographic texts   Chronicles   Synchronistic History   King lists   Eponym lists

5.12   Cosmo-, urano- and geography
5.12.1   Maps   World maps   City maps   Field maps
5.12.2   Geo- and uranographic texts   Sargon's empire   Measurements of universe
5.12.3   Geographic notions   Four quarters of the world

6. Visual arts and architecture (top)
6.1   Architectural and decorative motifs
6.1.1   Columns
6.1.2   Caryatids
6.1.3   Porticos
6.1.4   Ornamental bands   Lotus   Palmette   Pomegranate   Pine-cone
6.1.5   Concentric circles

6.2   Artefacts
6.2.1   Luxury furniture (ivory-panelled and/or lion-pawed)   Couches (kline)   Chairs   Stools   Tables   Beds
6.2.2   Jewellery   Earrings   Necklaces   Bracelets   Signet rings   Ankle rings
6.2.3   Glyptics   Cylinder seals   Stamp seals
6.2.4   Weights   Lion-weights   Duck-weights
6.2.5   Arms and armor   Engraved helmets
6.2.6   Rhytons   Lion-headed   Ram-headed
6.2.7   Ivory writing-boards   Diptychs   Polyptychs
6.2.8   Objects for playing   Gaming boards   Dice

6.3   Sculpture
6.3.1   Narrative reliefs
6.3.2   Orthostats
6.3.3   Door panels
6.3.4   Monumental rock reliefs
6.3.5   Royal stelae
6.3.6   Sculpture in round   Statues of kings   Statues of gods
6.3.7   Bull colossi

6.4   Plastic arts
6.4.1   Terracotta figurines   Apotropaic figurines   Votive figurines
6.4.2   Ceramics

6.5   Painting and drawing
6.5.1   Wall paintings
6.5.2   Vase paintings
6.5.3   Paintings on glazed bricks and objects
6.5.4   Line drawings and sketches

6.6   Aesthetic principles
6.6.1   Frontality
6.6.2   Symmetry
6.6.3   Harmony
6.6.4   Proportionality
6.6.5   Numerical ratios (1:2, 1:3, 2:3, 3:4 etc.)

6.7   Performing arts
6.7.1   Comedy   Jesters
6.7.2   Acrobats and jongleurs
6.7.3   Cultic drama   Dramatization of myths   Librettos of cultic dramas   Actors   Actors’ masks   Apotropaic clay masks   References to masks

7. Crafts and economy (top)
7.1   Engineering and technology
7.1.1   Irrigation systems   Canals   Ditches   Dams   Aqueducts   Wells and cisterns   Water reservoirs   Water-hoisting devices
7.1.2   Hydraulic systems   Plumbing and plumbers   Gutters   Water-pipes
7.1.3   Vaults
7.1.4   Paved roads   Milestones
7.1.5   Bridges
7.1.6   Causeways
7.1.7   Tunnels

7.2   Glassmaking and glazing
7.2.1   Glassmaking recipes
7.2.2   Lenses
7.2.3   Bottles
7.2.4   Glazing   Glazed bricks   Glazed pottery

7.3   Metallurgy
7.3.1   Mining
7.3.2   Casting
7.3.3   Minting
7.3.4   Alloying and refining   Electrum   Steel   Silver
7.3.5   Gilding
7.3.6   Smiths   Blacksmiths   Coppersmiths   Silver- and goldsmiths

7.4   Textile industry
7.4.1   Weaving   Carpets   Garments   Tunics (kitû)   Togas (šaddinnu)   Baldachins
7.4.2   Embroidered textiles
7.4.3   Cushions
7.4.4   Dyeing   Mineral dyes   Biological dyes   Purple

7.5   Food production
7.5.1   Oil industry   Olive oil   Oil presses   Oil pressers   Sesame oil   Flax   Animal oils
7.5.2   Agriculture   Ploughing and sowing   Ploughing implements   Ploughs   Watering   Threshing and winnowing   Storage of corn and hay   State granaries   Silos   Seed corn   Fallowing
7.5.3   Horticulture
7.5.4   Viticulture and brewing   Vineyards   Wines   Beer
7.5.5   Animal husbandry   Herding   Goats and sheep   Cattle   Horses   Oxen and cows   Poultry   Ducks   Geese   Bee-keeping   Honey   Milk products   Butter and ghee   Cheese   Yoghurt
7.5.6   Fishing and hunting   Nets   Traps   Pits

7.6   Trade and economy
7.6.1   Private traders   Joint business ventures
7.6.2   Overland trade   Trade colonies   Caravan trade
7.6.3   Overseas trade   Ports
7.6.4   Banking   Bankers   Loans   Credits
7.6.5   Money   Silver   Copper   Ingots   Minted coins

7.7   Labour and trade organizations
7.7.1   Associations of craftsmen
7.7.2   Associations of traders

8. Administrative systems (top)
8.1   Royal court
8.1.1   Royal advisors and ministers   Court scholars   Royal council   Cabinet of nine ministers including king   Chief scribe (royal scholar)   Vizier (sukkallu)   Chief judge (sartinnu)   Treasurer (masennu)   Chief eunuch (rab-šarisi)   Chief cupbearer (rab-saqe)   Commander-in-chief (turtanu)   Palace herald (nagir ekalli)   Royal council as "image" of divine council   Ministers as "images" of the "great gods"
8.1.2   Royal entourage   King's relatives   Bearded (uncastrated) courtiers   Eunuchs   Eunuch generals   Eunuch governors   Eunuch bodyguards   Foreign princes and nobility   Magnates

8.2   Court ceremony
8.2.1   Royal audience
8.2.2   Royal New Year's reception
8.2.3   Royal dinner
8.2.4   Royal Succession   Nursing and rearing of princes in temples   Choice of crown prince by extispicy   Binding the diadem   Introduction of heir into Succession Palace   Co-regency with king

8.3   Provincial administration
8.3.1   Provincial governors   Provincial courts modelled after royal courts
8.3.2   Military governors
8.3.3   Vassal kings   Royal deputy/delegate
8.3.4   Royal "eye and ear"
8.3.5   Administrative measures   Deportations

8.4   Taxation
8.4.1   Tax-collector (makisu)
8.4.2   Tax-collection points (pirru)
8.4.3   Customs dues (miksu)
8.4.4   Corn and straw tax (šibšu u nusahi)
8.4.5   Military service (ilku)
8.4.6   Labour service (tupšikku)
8.4.7   First fruits (rešeti)

8.5   Administrative standards
8.5.1   Weights   Talent   Mina   Shekel
8.5.2   Measures   Seah   Homer   Finger   Half-cubit (span)   Cubit   Reed (nindanu)   Stadion (šiddu)   League/parasang (beru "double-hour")
8.5.3   Standardized pottery
8.5.4   Standard rations

8.6   Diplomacy and foreign relations
8.6.1   Correspondence with foreign rulers
8.6.2   Messengers
8.6.3   Ambassadors   Embassies
8.6.4   Political methods   Honours   Dressing in purple   Granting insignia (golden torcs)   "Divide et impera"
8.6.5   Relations with vassals   Royal delegate at vassal court
8.6.6   Visits to the imperial court   Royal New Year's Reception   Tribute   "Asking the king's health"
8.6.7   Treaties   Friendship and peace treaties   Alliance pacts (treaties of peace and vassalage)   Vassal treaties   Allegiance pacts
8.6.8   Declaration of war

>9. Army and warfare (top)
9.1   Conscription system
9.1.1   Basic conscription unit (ki$ru "cohort")
9.1.2   Conscripts ($ab šarri "king's men")
9.1.3   Reserves (kutallu)
9.1.4   General levy
9.1.5   Equipment and provisioning of troops (ša$bussu)   Equipment   Provisions ($iditu)
9.1.6   Sustenance of troops ("bow field")
9.1.7   Muster of troops (mašartu)

9.2   Standing army
9.2.1   Imperial guard
9.2.2   Regional armies   Armies of cabinet ministers   Turtanu   Rabsake   Rab-saris   Nagir ekalli   Provincial troops
9.2.3   Professional troops
9.2.4   Mercenaries
9.2.5   Cavalry
9.2.6   Chariotry   Driver   Chariot fighter   Third man
9.2.7   Infantry   Archers   Slingers   Hoplites   Shield-bearers
9.2.8   Paramilitary troops   Scouts   Trackers   Pioneers and engineers   Sappers   Cooks   Artisans   Scribes   Diviners

9.4   Officers and units
9.4.1   Commander-of-fifty
9.4.2   Cohort commander (rab ki$ir)
9.4.3   Chiliarch (rab limi)
9.4.4   Prefect (šaknu)
9.4.5   Governor

9.3   Camps, garrisons and fortifications
9.3.1   Military camps   Content and structure of camp   Construction of camp   Moving camp
9.3.2   Garrisons   Training of troops
9.3.3   Forts and fortifications   Structure of fort   Construction of forts   Manning a fort   Equipping a fort

9.4   Siege methods and equipment
9.4.1   Siege engines
9.4.2   Ladders

10. Jurisdiction and legislature (top)
10.1   Judges
10.1.1   Three-graded court system   Local courts (hazannu)   Ministerial court (Chief Judge and Vizier)   Appeal to the king ("king's case")   Petitions
10.1.2   City council
10.1.3   Royal council
10.1.4   Assembly of the country
10.1.5   Assembly of all lands

10.2   Law codes and edicts
10.2.1   Codex Hammurapi
10.2.2   Middle Assyrian laws

10.3   Legal documents
10.3.1   Royal edicts and decrees
10.3.2   Court decisions   Criminal cases   Settlements
10.3.3   Contracts   Sale   Prices   Loan   Interest rates   Hire   Wages   Rent and lease   Work contracts   Trade contracts   Marriage contracts
10.3.4   Receipts
10.3.5   Disbursements
10.3.6   Wills
10.3.7   Ordeal
10.3.8   Legal formulae   Curse formulae   Witnesses

11. Language, communication, libraries and education (top)
11.1   Imperial languages
11.1.1   Assyrian
11.1.2   Babylonian
11.1.3   Aramaic
11.1.4   Minority languages
11.1.5   Shared linguistic items and features   Technical terms   Idiomatic expre   Formulaic expressions   Literary motifs and topoi   Mesopotamian loanwords in later languages

11.2   Writing systems and writing media
11.2.1   Cuneiform script   Clay tablets   Waxed writing-boards
11.2.2   Alphabetic script   Clay tablets   Papyrus scrolls   Leather scrolls   Ostraca

11.3   Libraries and archives
11.3.1   Royal libraries
11.3.2   Royal archives
11.3.3   Temple libraries and archives
11.3.4   Private libraries
11.3.5   Private archives

11.4   Letters and imperial mail
11.4.1   Sealing
11.4.2   Envelopes
11.4.3   Epistolary formulae   Address   Salutation   Blessing formulae
11.4.4   Post system   Royal road   Road stations   Relay system   Mule express   Postmaster

11.5   Education and transmission of knowledge
11.5.1   Public education   Palace schools   Indoctrination of foreign nobility   Temple schools
11.5.2   Private education   Private teachers
11.5.3   Higher education   Transmission of esoteric lore
11.5.4   School texts

12. Assyrian identity (top)
12.1   The shaping of Assyrian identity in imperial times
12.1.1   Aramaization of Assyria   Annexation of Aramean West   Mass deportations   Systematic imposition of Aramaic as imperial lingua franca   Bilingualism of Assyrian ruling elite   Aramaic as first language of Akkadian scribes   Aramaic influences on Assyrian   Phonology   Morphology   Syntax   Lexicon   Idiomatic expressions   Use of Aramaic and Aramaic script in imperial administration   Royal correspondence in Aramaic   Aramaic legal documents   Aramaic treaties   Aramaic administrative terms in Assyrian
12.1.2   Assyrianization of Arameans   Extension of Assyrian citizenship to all provinces   Integration of Aramean nobility into imperial elite   Schooling of noble youths at court   Bilingualism of Aramean nobility   Assyrian influences on Aramaic   Phonology   Morphology   Syntax   Lexicon   Idiomatic expressions
12.1.3   Cultural homogenization of the Empire   Imposition of imperial standards   Uniform money   Uniform calendar   Uniform weights and measures   Uniform taxation   Ideological and religious propaganda   Emperor cult   Notion of a single supreme ruler   Notion of a single supreme god   Uniform visual imagery and symbolism

12.2   Assyrian identity in post-Empire times
12.2.1   Assyrian in Neo- and Late Babylonian sources   Personal names   Individuals identified as Assyrians   Assyrians as ethnic group   Assyrian traditions in the Neo-Babylonian Empire   Nabonidus as Assyrian king
12.2.2   Assyria and Assyrians in Achaemenid sources   Assyria as political entity   The Achaemenid province of Athura   Assyrians as ethnic group
12.2.3   Assyria and Assyrians in Greek, Latin and Jewish sources   Continuity of the Empire after the fall of Nineveh   Concept of "universal hegemony"   Concept of transfer of hegemony/sovereignty   Identification of the Babylonian Empire with Assyria/Syria   Babylon as capital of Assyria   Nebuchadnezzar as king of Assyria/Syria   Babylonia as "country of the Assyrians/Syrians"   Identification of the Achaemenid Empire with Assyria   Achaemenid kings as kings of Assyria/Babylonia   Mesopotamiazation of Achaemenid Persians   Designation of the Seleucid Empire as Syria/Assyria   Seleucia as capital of Assyria   "Syrianization" of Seleucid Greeks   Identification of Aramaic speaking areas as Assyria   Syro-Media   Identification of speakers of Aramaic as Assyrians   Aramaic alphabet as "Assyrian script"   Aramaic as "Assyrian language"   Interchange of Syria/Assyria in Greek and Latin sources   Syria as a variant of Assyria   "Syrians" as a designation of ancient Assyrians   Syria as a designation of the Assyrian Empire   Assyria as a designation of (geographical) Syria in Latin sources   Syria (= Assyria) as opposed to Aturia (= Assyrian heartland)

12.3   Assyrian identity in Christian Era
12.3.1   Conversion of Syria/Mesopotamia to Christianity
12.3.2   Continuity of "Old Faith" beside Christianity   Harran   Sabians   Edessa   Hierapolis/Membig   Emesa   Heliopolis   Palmyra   Dura Europos   Assur   Hatra
12.3.3   Assyrian substratum features in early Syriac Christianity   Veneration of images   Images of emperor   Images of angels   Images of saints   Sanctification of the emperor   Proskynesis   Halo   Incensation   Silence   Concept of god   God's transcendence and immanence   Distinction between essence and attributes of God   Developed angelology (Pseudo-Dionysios)   Archangels   Three-tiered three-ordered angelic hierarchy   Ecclesiastical hierarchy as mirror of celestial order   Redemptory death of Christ   Resurrection and exaltation of Christ   Trinitarian doctrine   God the Father as Demiurge and Divine King   Holy Spirit as feminine entity   Christ as Son of God and pre-existent saviour   Theotokos as Mother of God   Projection of features of the Goddess upon Madonna   Imagery and symbolism   Sun and its rays   Fountain and rivers   Tree of life   Madonna and child   Lamb of god   Garments = virtues   Mythology   Hymn of the Pearl   Fight against the Dragon   Liturgy   Circumambulation of church   Processions   Incensation   Lighting of candles   Animal sacrifices   Prayer habits   Clerical dress   Priestly cap   Asceticism   Idealization of celibacy/androgyny   Seclusion from the world   Fasting and weeping   Self-mutilation   Mysticism   Ascent of the soul
12.3.4   Assyrian genealogical traditions among nobility
12.3.5   Assyrian legends, myths and customs   in hagiographic writings   in Syrian historiography   in folk tradition

B. Periods (top)
1. Archaic Uruk
2. Akkadian Empire
3. Sumerian Ur III Empire
4. Old Assyrian and Old Babylonian Empires
5. Cassite Empire
6. Hittite Empire
7. Middle Assyrian Empire
8. Neo-Assyrian Empire
9. Neo-Babylonian Empire
10. Median Empire
11. Achaemenid Empire
12. Alexander's Empire
13. Seleucid Empire
14. Roman Empire
15. Arsacid Empire
16. Osrhoene
17. Adiabene
18. Armenia
19. Sasanian Empire
20. Byzantine Empire
21. Umayyad Empire
22. Abbasid Empire
23. Papal Court

C. Channels of Transmission (top)
1. Ionian and Greek poets
1.1   Hesiod
1.2   Homer
1.3   Archilochus

2. Ionian philosophers
2.1   Thales
2.2   Anaximander
2.3   Pythagoras
2.4   Parmenides
2.5   Empedocles
2.6   Heraclitus
2.7   Democritus

3. Ionian historians
3.1   Herodotus

4. Greek philosophers and scholars
4.1   Anaxagoras
4.2   Meton
4.3   Plato
4.4   Euclid
4.5   Hipparchus
4.6   Heron of Alexandria
4.7   Posidonius of Rhodes
4.8   Apollonius of Mys

5. Mesopotamian scholars and priests
5.1   Berosus
5.2   Sudines
5.3   Diogenes of Babylon
5.4   Chaldaeans
5.5   Magi (if used as a synonym of Chaldaeans)

6. Oriental mystery cults
6.1   Orphism
6.2   Cult of Cybele
6.3   Cult of Astarte
6.4   Cult of Dea Syria
6.5   Cult of Adonis
6.6   Cult of Mithras
6.7   Cult of Isis

7. Imperial courts and administration
7.1   Neo-Babylonian imperial court
7.2   Achaemenid imperial court
7.3   Alexander' court
7.4   Seleucid imperial court
7.5   Roman imperial court
7.5.1   Claudius
7.5.2   Nero
7.5.3   Domitian
7.5.4   Trajan
7.5.5   Julian the Chaldean
7.5.6   Marcus Aurelius
7.5.7   The Severans
7.5.8   Elagabalus
7.5.9   Aurelian
7.5.10   Julian the Apostate

8. Roman philosophers and scholars
8.1   Nigidius Figulus
8.2   Cicero
8.3   Seneca
8.4   Manilius
8.5   Strabo
8.6   Vettius Valens

9. Syrian, Levantine and Anatolian philosophers
9.1   Zenon
9.2   Tatian
9.3   Porphyry
9.4   Iamblichus
9.5   Proclus

Appendix 2. Samples of Database Entries (top)

A. Raw Entries (top)
Entries submitted by individual contributors in the following raw format (simple extracts from primary sources or modern studies, with *summaries, bibliographical references and annotations) will be edited and converted into database format by Melammu staff; see sections 5.3 and 7.1-5. Examples of an edited and converted entry are given below, under B 1-3. Submitted entries do not necessarily have to conform to the format of the samples below. Note that the entries below do not include full bibliographic details, which must be submitted along with the entry if these details are not yet to be found in the cumulative bibliography file of Melammu. The excerpts from Greek and Roman texts are primarily from the Loeb editions of these texts.

*Transfer of hegemony
"For it was under [Sardanapallos] that the empire [hegemonia] of the Assyrians fell to the Medes, after it had lasted more than thirteen hundred years, as Ctesias of Cnidus says"
(Diodorus II xxi 1)

*Transfer of hegemony
"After the Assyrians had ruled Asia for five hundred years they were conquered by the Medes... Cyaxares became for the Medes the founder of their universal empire"
(Diodorus II xxxii 2, quoting Herodotus)

*Babylonia = Assyria
Nabunaid calls Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal his royal ancestors
(VAB 4 221 i 47f)

*Nebuchadnezzar = king of Assyria
"Nebuchadnezzar, king of Assyria ... The Great King, lord of all the earth"
(Judith 2:4-5)

*Aramaic script = script of Assyria
"[Darius] wrote the words ... of the laws of Egypt and they wrote a copy in a papyrus roll in script of Assyria (sh 'I&r = Aramaic) and of epistles (sh &'.t = demotic)"(Demotic chronicle, 30f; also Papyrus Cairo 50153 from Edfu, line 2)
[W. Spiegelberg, Demotische Studien 7, Leipzig 1914]

*Demotic 'I&(w)r = Assyria = Syria = Aram
Demotic 'I&(w)r denotes not only Assyria proper but also Syria/Aram; the latter usage is attested already in a papyrus dated 529 BC, probably from Elephantine. Some of the 'I&wr mentioned there have names which are definitely West-Semitic. The trilingual decree of Canopus [Roman period] equates 'I&r with Syria [ref.], but in the Persian period 'I&r may well have been equated with Assyria, even when referring to Aram.
(Richard C. Steiner, "Why the Aramaic Script Was Called 'Assyrian' in Hebrew, Greek, and Demotic," Or n.s. 62 (1993) 80-82)
(W. Erichsen, Klio 34 (1941) 57)
(K. Th. Zauzich, in J. Johnson, ed., "Life in a Multi-Cultural Society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and Beyond" (Chicago 1992), 364)

*Assyrians = Syrians
"Now the city of Ninus was wiped out immediately after the overthrow of the Syrians. It was much greater than Babylon, and was situated in the plain of Aturia. Aturia borders on the region of Arbela, with the Lycus River lying between them"
(Strabo XVI i 3)

*King of Persia = king of Babylon
"Artaxerxes king of Babylon"
(Nehemiah 13:6; cf. Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra 7:1)
"Cyrus king of Babylon"
(Ezra 1:1f, 3:7, cf. Cyrus king of Persia, ibid. 4:3)

*King of Persia = king of Assyria
The LORD had ... changed the disposition of [Darius] the king of Assyria towards them"
(Ezra 6:22, cf. "Darius [I/II] king of Persia", ibid. 4:5/24, 5:13)

*King of Persia = king of Babylon
"We have sent to inform Your Majesty [Xerxes], in order that search be made in the annals of your predecessors [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, cf. 2:1]. You will discover ... that this [Jerusalem] has been a rebellious city, harmful to the monarchy and its provinces"
(Ezra 4:14)

*Seleucia = A&&ur
"A&&ur is Seleucia (slyq')"
({baraitha| cited in BT Yoma 10a, Ketubbot 10b)

*Jewish square script = Assyrian writing
*Babylonia = Assyria
Jewish "square" script = ketab A&uri "Assyrian writing"
(BT Sanh. 21b, etc.; called so "because the Jews brought it with them from Ashur," Sanh. 22a, PT Megilla I, 71b)

*Babylonia = Assyria
"The god Bel had much glebe consecrated by the Assyrian kings, and much treasure too"
(Arrian, Anabasis VII xvii 3)

*Babylonia = Assyria
"Cutting down the cypresses in Babylonia; for this is the only tree which grows freely in the Assyrian country, which is bare of everything else necessary for shipbuilding"
(Arrian, Anabasis VII xix 4)

*Seleucid king = king of Syria
"The original town [Charax at the Persian Gulf] was ... restored by Antiochus, the fifth king of Syria, who gave it his own name"
(Pliny VI xxx xxxi 139)

*Assyrian language = Aramaic
"The whole of Mesopotamia once belonged to the Assyrians... Its name among the whole of the Assyrians is Narmalchas, which means the Royal River"
(Pliny VI xxx 117)

*Babylonia = part of Assyria
"Babylon, which is the capital of the Chaldaean races, once held an outstanding celebrity among the cities of the whole of the world, and in consequence of this the remaining part of Mesopotamia and Assyria has received the name of Babylonia. It has two walls with a circuit of 60 miles, each wall being 200 ft. high and 50 ft. wide (the Assyrian foot measures 3 inches more than ours)"
(Pliny VI xxx 121)

*Mesopotamian culture in Roman times
"There are in addition the following towns in Mesopotamia: Hippareni -- this also a school of Chaldaean learning like Babylon... also Orocheni, a third seat of Chaldaean learning"
(Pliny VI xxx 123; cf. Strabo XVI i 6)

*Babylon and Seleucia = capital of Assyria
"In ancient times Babylon was the metropolis of Assyria; but now Seleuceia is the metropolis... And as we call the country Babylonia, so also we call the men from there Babylonians, that is, not after the city, but after the country; but we do not call men after Seleuceia, if they are from there, as, for example, Diogenes the Stoic philosopher [who was known as Diogenes the Babylonian, Cicero, De Nat. Deorum 1.5]"
(Strabo XVI i 16)

*Persian customs = Assyrian customs
"... after briefly going over the customs of Assyria. Now in general their customs are like those of the Persians... And in accordance with a certain oracle all the Babylonian women have a custom of having intercourse with a foreigner, the woman going to a temple of Aphrodite"
(Strabo XVI i 19-20)

*Babylonia = country of the Assyrians/Syrians = Aturia
Strabo defines "the country of the Assyrians" as extending from Persis and Susiana to Black Sea (Euxine), Cilicia and Phoenicia, says it includes, besides Aturia and Babylonia, "those people who in a special sense of the term are called by the men of today Syrians, who extend as far as the Cilicians and the Phoenicians," and equates it with the "Syrian empire" which was overthrown by the Medes.
(Strabo XVI i 1-2)
"The country of the Assyrians borders on Persis and Susiana. This name is given to Babylonia and to much of the country all around, which latter, in part, is also called Aturia, in which are Ninus... Nisibis, as far as the Zeugma of the Euphrates [at Commagene, i 22], as also much of the country on the far side of the Euphrates... and those people who in a special sense of the term are called by the men of today Syrians, who extend as far as the Cilicians and the Phoenicians and the sea that is opposite the Aegyptian Sea and the Gulf of Iss. It seems that the name of the Syrians extended not only from Babylonia to the gulf of Issus, but also in ancient times from this gulf to the Euxine... When those who have written histories of the Syrian empire say that the Medes were overthrown by the Persians and the Syrians by the Medes, they mean by the Syrians no other people than those who built the royal palaces in Babylon and Ninus; and, of these Syrians, Ninus was the man who founded Ninus in Aturia, and his wife, Semiramis, was the woman who succeeded her husband and founded Babylon. These two gained the mastery of Asia... But later the empire passed over to the Medes"
(Strabo XVI i 1-2)

*Mesopotamian culture in Roman times
"There are also several tribes of the Chaldaean astronomers. For example, some are called Orcheni, others Borsippeni, and several others by different names, as though divided into different sects which hold to various different dogmas about the same subjects. And the mathematicians make mention of some of these men; as, for example, Cidenas and Naburianus and Sudinus. Seleucus of Seleuceia is also a Chaldaean, as are also several other noteworthy men"
(Strabo XVI i 6)

*Syria in Roman times
"Syria is bounded on the north by Cilicia and Mt. Amanus; and the distance from the sea to the bridge of the Euphrates (from the gulf of Issus to the bridge at Commagene), which forms the boundary of that side... We set down as parts of Syria, beginning at Cilicia and Mt. Amanus, both Commagene and the Seleucis of Syria; and the Coele-Syria, and last, on the seaboard, Phoenicia, and in the interior, Judaea..."
(Strabo XVI ii 1)

*Athenian time-reckoning = Mesopotamian
"The Athenians ... regard all the intervening time from one sunset to the next as one single day [as against the Romans, whose day extended from midnight to midnight]"
(Aulus Gellius III ii 4)

*Mesopotamian literary topoi in apocrypha
"I awoke with a start, shuddering... But the angel [Uriel] who had come and talked to me gave me strength... 'But, MY LORD,' I said..."
(2 Esdras 5:14)
[cf. "Gudea arose, it was a dream; he shuddered, it was a dream," Gudea Cyl A 12:12f;
"[Kumm]aya awoke with a start ... it was a dream," SAA 3 32:37, etc.]

*Mesopotamian topoi in apocryphal literature
"He now saw with alarm that he might be short of money, as had happened {or twice before|"
(1 Macc. 3:30)
[cf. the Neo-Assyrian idiom {mala &ini_&u| "once or twice"]

*Seleucid empire = Syria
"[In 160 BC] the Syrian army [of King Demetrius son of Seleucus] left its camp and took up position to meet the Jews"
(1 Macc. 9:11)

*Nebuchadnezzar = king of Syria/Assyria
"Hanging Garden, as it is called, which was built, not by Semiramis, but by a later Syrian king to please one of his concubines"
(Diodorus II x 1, quoting Ctesias II 10)

*Assyrian religion
"The Assyrians worship the dove as a god"
(Diodorus II xix 2)

*Mesopotamian cultural influence [extispicy] in Greece
"Peithagoras, one of those seers who prophesy from the flesh of victims ... sent a similar letter to Apollodorus about Alexander advising him to beware lest any danger should at this time come upon him"
(Arrian, Anabasis xviii 1)

*Babylonia(ns) = Assyria(ns)
"If, however, the bed of the Pallacopas was not in turn blocked... then the Assyrian plain would never be watered from it. But the outlets of the Euphrates into the Pallacopas were blocked by the satrap of Babylon... Yet even so for three months over ten thousand Assyrians were engaged in the task ... When this was reported to Alexander it incited him to try to assist the land of Assyria"
(Arrian, Anabasis xxi 4f-6)

*Seleucid "Greeks" = Syrians
"The Macedonians of Alexandria in Egypt, of Seleuceia and Babylonia, have degenerated into Syrians, into Parthians, into Egyptians"
(Livy XXXVIII, 17, 10, citing Manlius [189 BC])

*Seleucid "Greeks" = Syrians
"The armies of Antiochus III ... were all Syrians"
(Livy XXXV 49, 8, citing Titus Flaminius)

*Seleucid "Greeks" = Syrians
The Syrian Greeks were regarded by the Greeks of the motherland as inferior to them
(Polybios XXXII 6, 6)

*Contribution of the East to Hellenistic philosophy
"They [the Stoics of Tarsus] have surpassed Alexandria and Athens ... as seats of learning and philosophical studies ... Here all students are natives... They have schools for all kinds of literary culture"
(Strabo XIV 673)

*Assyrian heritage in Seleucid empire
Members of the Seleucid royal council were called "purpurati" [cf. the Assyrian "magnates"]. Craterus the Eunuch is the "chief physician; his rank is that of the first friend" [cf. the office of Chief Eunuch in Assyria].
(Livy XXX 42, 6; XXXVII 23, 7).

*Achaemenid royal ideology = Assyrian
"The best of our many good customs is that we revere the King and worship him as the image of God, God who saves everything"
(Thucydides IV 50, quoting words of Persian Artaphernes)

*Aramaic = Assyrian language
Persian Artaphernes, who was carrying a message from the Great King to Sparta, was taken prisoner, brought to Athens, and the letters he was carrying were translated "from the Assyrian language"
(Thucydides IV 20)

*Mesopotamiazation of the Jews
"Our original ancestors were Chaldaeans, and they mention us Jews in their records because of the relationship between us"
(Josephus, Against Apionem I 13)

*Mesopotamiazation of the Jews
"Both Jews and Chaldaeans are called Yahu#ai in Mandean scripts, showing that they were considered one nation by the Mandeans... Generally, Nebuchadnezzar is called a Yahu#ai"
(Drower, Mandeans p. 287)

*Continuity of Assyrian religion (Harranians)
"All ... we know about them is that they profess monotheism and describe God as exempt from anything that is bad, using in this description the via negationis... The rule of the universe they attribute to the celestial globe and its bodies, which they consider as living, speaking, hearing and seeing bodies"
(Biruni, quoted in Drower, Mandeans p. xvii)

*Mesopotamian religion: belief in eternal life
"The last named author [Theopompos, 4th cent. BC] says that according to the [Babylonian] Magi men will live in a future life and be immortal, and that the world will endure through their invocations"
(Diogenes Laërtius, Vitae philosophorum 1.9, trans. R.D. Hicks, Loeb Classical Library)
[It is not excluded that "Magi" here is synonymous with "Chaldaeans"]

*Continuity of Assyrian religion
"Wahb ibn Ibrahim says that in the month of Tammuz, the women weep for the god Ta-uz [= Ass. Ta'u_z]"
(Green, City of the Moon God, p. 152)

*Continuity of Assyrian religion (Sabians)
In esoteric Sabian doctrine, the planets became identified with the various philosophical abstractions such as the Soul, Intellect, Necessity, etc.(J. Tubach, Im Schatten des Sonnengottes: der Sonnenkultus in Edessa, Harran und Hatra am
Vorabend der christlichen Mission, Wiesbaden 1985)

*Continuity of Assyrian religion (Harranians)
"Most of them [the Harranians] are not Christians but are of the old faith"
(Procopius, AD 544!)
(Green, City of the Moon God, p. 53)

*Continuity of Assyrian religion (Harranians)
Harranians are "a class of Sabians who maintain the adored Creator is both one and many"
(Green, City of the Moon God, p. 166)

*Mesopotamian origins of Platonic philosophy
Plato compares man to an upside-down tree, whose roots are in the heavens and whose branches are in the earth.
(Plato Timaeus 90 A7-B2)

*Continuity of Assyrian culture
Liver omens in Harran in AD 736
(Green, City of the Moon God, p. 92)

*Assyrians in post-Empire [Roman] time
Harran became a town of the frontier that "divides Romans from Assyrians"
(Green, City of the Moon God, p. 92)

*Assyrian traditions in Neo-Babylonian Empire
"Some expressions occurring in Harran inscriptions do not appear anywhere else in the NB texts but are characteristic of NA royal inscriptions, particularly those of Assurbanipal's time. The Cyrus cylinder was also written by writers from Nabonidus' chancellary, who retained their positions under Cyrus"
(Zawadzki, The Fall of Assyria, p. 118)

*Transmission of Mesopotamian magical beliefs
"Pliny the elder quotes Zachalias of Babylon as attributing to haematite a role in the of lawsuits and trials"
(Postgate, "Mesopotamian Petrology" (1997), 222 n. 40)
(Thompson DACG (1936) 86)
(Reiner, Astral magic (1995) 124)

*Continuity of Assyrian culture (Arbela/4th-7th cent. AD)
A place called Melqi (MLQI) in the vicinity of Arbela figures in Nestorian literary sources as the burial place of Mar Qardagh of Arbela (c. AD 360), a descendant of the royal house of "Athor" (Assyria) via Sennacherib on his mother's side and Nimrod on his father's side. It is highly likely that the site, where there was a fire temple and church complex, is identical with Milqia known from Assyrian sources as the site of an important Ishtar temple.
(Joel Walker <="">)
   "My questions emerge out of a research project (my dissertation based at Princeton) which centers on a Syriac martyr's legend of the 7th century AD -- Mar Qardagh of Arbela, Sasanian marzban of northern Iraq under Shapur II in the 360's AD. The text has several interesting connections with traditions/memories of Assyria, beginning with Qardagh's genealogy traced from the royal house of "Athor" (Assyria) via Sennacherib on his mother's side and Nimrod on his father's side.
   According to his hagiographer, Qardagh's cult began at a place called Melqi (MLQI) in the vicinity of Arbela, where there was a fire temple and church complex that was later converted into a church and market complex and eventually became a monastery. But the site appears to have declined (or changed names??) during the medieval period, and modern scholarship has been unable to locate it. The story of the saint's life and his travels in the highlands north and east of Arbela make a location immediately to the NE of Arbela an attractive hypothesis.
   Is the cult site of Mar Qardagh at "Melqi" described in the Nestorian literary sources identical with "Milqia", site of an Ishtar temple, noted in the Assyrian sources? If so, we have a very interesting case of long-term continuity in the religious topography of north Mesopotamia."
[Joel Walker <="">, 4 Nov 1997]
(J.M. Fiey, Assyrie Chrétienne)

B. Samples of Entries Converted into Database Format (top)
1. Raw entries (top)
*Mural crown of Assyrian queens --> symbol of Cybele/Tyche
The mural crown is attested is Assyrian reliefs as a device worn by Assyrian queens as "images" of Mullissu, the queen of heaven. The crown is later associated strongly with the Anatolian Cybele, a mother and earth goddess, and with the Greek Tyche, goddess of fortune (called by the Romans Fortuna), especially as the patroness of a city. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Tyche of Antioch, a well known statue of whom was represented in painting and on coins from the first century BC until well into Byzantine (Christian) times.
(H”rig 1979:129-34; Sayles 1994:14-15)
decius1d.jpg;Detail of the Tyche of Antioch from a coin of Trajan Decius (AD 249-251).
genant1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on a coin of that city (AD 312).
justin1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on the reverse of a Greek Imperial (Roman Provincial) bronze coin.
[R.M. Whiting]

*Demotic 'I&(w)r = Assyria = Syria = Aram
Demotic 'I&(w)r denotes not only Assyria proper but also Syria/Aram; the latter usage is attested already in a papyrus dated 529 BC, probably from Elephantine. Some of the 'I&wr mentioned there have names which are definitely West-Semitic. The trilingual decree of Canopus [Roman period] equates 'I&r with Syria [ref.], but in the Persian period 'I&r may well have been equated with Assyria, even when referring to Aram.
(Richard C. Steiner, "Why the Aramaic Script Was Called 'Assyrian' in Hebrew, Greek, and
Demotic," Or n.s. 62 (1993) 80-82)
(W. Erichsen, Klio 34 (1941) 57)
(K. Th. Zauzich, in J. Johnson, ed., "Life in a Multi-Cultural Society:
Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and Beyond" (Chicago 1992), 364)

*Assyrians = Syrians
"Now the city of Ninus was wiped out immediately after the overthrow of the Syrians. It was much greater than Babylon, and was situated in the plain of Aturia. Aturia borders on the region of Arbela, with the Lycus River lying between them"
(Strabo XVI i 3)

2. Edited entries (top)
[entry number]   *1
[entry name]     N=Mural Crown
[type]           T=Iconography, Symbol
[keywords]       K=,,
[period]         P=14
[channel]        C=7.5
[summary]        S=Mural crown of Assyrian queens becomes the symbol of
[illustration]   I=decius1d.jpg;Detail of the Tyche of Antioch from a coin of
                 Trajan Decius (AD 249-251).
[illustration]   I=genant1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on a coin of that city
                 (AD 312).
[illustration]   I=justin1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on the reverse of a Greek
                 Imperial (Roman Provincial) bronze coin.
The mural crown is attested is Assyrian reliefs as a device worn by Assyrian queens as "images" of Mullissu, the queen of heaven. The crown is later associated strongly with the Anatolian Cybele, a mother and earth goddess, and with the Greek Tyche, goddess of fortune (called by the Romans Fortuna), especially as the patroness of a city. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Tyche of Antioch, a well known statue of whom was represented in painting and on coins from the first century BC until well into Byzantine (Christian) times.
[bibliography]   B=Hörig 1979:129-34
[bibliography]   B=Sayles 1994:14-15
[bibliography]   B=Parpola 1997:xcvii n.160
[author]         A=R.M. Whiting
[hypertext link] L=;Tyche
[remarks]        R=

[entry number]   *33
[entry name]     N=Assyrian Identity
[type]           T=Name, Word
[keywords]       K=12.2, 12.2.2,
[period]         P=11, 14
[channel]        C=7
[summary]        S=Demotic 'I&(w)r = Assyria = Syria = Aram
[illustration]   I=
Demotic 'I&(w)r denotes not only Assyria proper but also Syria/Aram; the latter usage is attested already in a papyrus dated 529 BC, probably from Elephantine. Some of the 'I&wr mentioned there have names which are definitely West-Semitic. The trilingual decree of Canopus [Roman period] equates 'I&r with Syria, but in the Persian period 'I&r may well have been equated with Assyria, even when referring to Aram.
[document] D=Steiner 1993
[bibliography]   B=R. Steiner 1993:80-82
[bibliography]   B=Erichsen 1941:57
[bibliography]   B=Zauzich 1992:364
[author]         A=S. Parpola
[hypertext link] L=
[remarks]        R=

[entry number]   *34
[entry name]     N=Assyrian Identity
[type]           T=Name, Word
[keywords]       K=12.2, 12.2.3,,
[period]         P=14
[channel]        C=9
[summary]        S=Assyrians = Syrians
[illustration]   I=
"Now the city of Ninus was wiped out immediately after the overthrow of the Syrians. It was much greater than Babylon, and was situated in the plain of Aturia. Aturia borders on the region of Arbela, with the Lycus River lying between them"
[bibliography]   B=Strabo 16.1.3
[author]         A=S. Parpola
[hypertext link] L=
[remarks]        R=

3. Entries in database format (top)
00000001N @Mural Crown
00000001T @Iconography, Symbol
00000001K @,,
00000001P @14
00000001C @7.5
00000001S @Mural crown of Assyrian queens becomes the symbol of Cybele/Tyche
00000001I @decius1d.jpg;Detail of the Tyche of Antioch from a coin of Trajan
00000001I @Decius (AD 249-251).
00000001I2@genant1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on a coin of that city (AD 312).
00000001I3@justin1a.jpg;Tyche of Antioch on the reverse of a Greek Imperial
00000001I3@(Roman Provincial) bronze coin.
00000001  @The mural crown is attested is Assyrian reliefs as a device worn
00000001   by Assyrian queens as "images" of Mullissu, the queen of heaven.
00000001   The crown is later associated strongly with the Anatolian Cybele,
00000001   a mother and earth goddess, and with the Greek Tyche, goddess of
00000001   fortune (called by the Romans Fortuna), especially as the patroness
00000001   of a city. Perhaps the most famous of these was the Tyche of
00000001   Antioch, a well known statue of whom was represented in painting
00000001   and on coins from the first century BC until well into Byzantine
00000001   (Christian) times.
00000001B @Ho\"rig 1979:129-34
00000001B2@Sayles 1994:14-15
00000001B3@Parpola 1997:xcvii n.160
00000001A @R.M. Whiting
00000001L @;Tyche

00000033N @Assyrian Identity
00000033T @Name, Word
00000033K @12.2, 12.2.2,
00000033P @11, 14
00000033C @7
00000033S @Demotic 'I&(w)r = Assyria = Syria = Aram
00000033  @Demotic 'I&(w)r denotes not only Assyria proper but also Syria/Aram;
00000033   the latter usage is attested already in a papyrus dated 529 BC,
00000033   probably from Elephantine. Some of the 'I&wr mentioned there have
00000033   names which are definitely West-Semitic. The trilingual decree of
00000033   Canopus [Roman period] equates 'I&r with Syria, but in the Persian
00000033   period 'I&r may well have been equated with Assyria, even when
00000033   referring to Aram.
00000033D @Steiner 1993
00000033B @R. Steiner 1993:80-82
00000033B2@Erichsen 1941:57
00000033B3@Zauzich 1992:364
00000033A @S. Parpola

00000034N @Assyrian Identity
00000034T @Name, Word
00000034K @12.2, 12.2.3,,
00000034P @14
00000034C @9
00000034S @Assyrians = Syrians
00000034  @"Now the city of Ninus was wiped out immediately after the
00000034   overthrow of the Syrians. It was much greater than Babylon,
00000034   and was situated in the plain of Aturia. Aturia borders on
00000034   the region of Arbela, with the Lycus River lying between them."
00000034B @Strabo 16.1.3
00000034A @S. Parpola

Appendix 3. Organization of Melammu (top)

1. Steering Committee (top)
   Simo Parpola (Helsinki), Chairman (term expires October, 1999)
   Robert Whiting (Helsinki), Vice Chairman (term expires October, 1999)
   Walter Burkert (Basel)
   Martti Nissinen (Helsinki)
   Antonio Panaino (Ravenna)
   Kurt A. Raaflaub (Washington)
   Abdul Massih Saadi (Chicago)
   Martin L. West (Oxford)
   Joan G. Westenholz (Chicago/Jerusalem)

2. Consultants (top)
   John Baines (Oxford)
   John J. Collins (Chicago)
   Riccardo Contini (Venezia)
   Cristiano Grottanelli (Pisa)
   Ithamar Gruenwald (Tel Aviv)
   Volkert Haas (Berlin)
   William W. Hallo (Yale)
   Amir Harrak (Toronto)
   Moshe Idel (Jerusalem)
   Bruno Jacobs (Köln)
   Othmar Keel (Freiburg/Schweiz)
   Amelie Kuhrt (London)
   Giovanni B. Lanfranchi (Padua)
   Baruch A. Levine (New York)
   Abraham Malamat (Jerusalem)
   Christian Marek (Zürich)
   Walter Mayer (Münster)
   Ernest G. McClain (Belmont)
   Fergus Millar (Oxford)
   Joachim Oelsner (Leipzig)
   Heikki Palva (Helsinki)
   Asko Parpola (Helsinki)
   Shalom Paul (Jerusalem)
   David Pingree (Providence)
   Rüdiger Schmitt (Saarbrücken)
   Guy G. Stroumsa (Jerusalem)
   Werner Sunderman (Jerusalem)
   Christoph Ühlinger (Freiburg/Schweiz)
   Moshe Weinfeld (Jerusalem)
   Josef Wiesehöfer (Kiel)

3. Database Manager (top)
   Sanna Aro-Valjus (Helsinki)
   Pirjo Lapinkivi (Helsinki) (May-August 1999)

4. Research Assistants (top)
   Andrea Piras (Ravenna) / Iranian Studies (supervisor: A. Panaino)
   Eleanora Cussini (Padua) / Assyriology and Classics (proposed)
   NN (Chicago) / Syriac Literature (supervisor: A. M. Saadi) (proposed)

5. Supporting Institutions (top)
   Assyrian Academic Society, Chicago
   Assurbanipal Library, Chicago
   Mesopotamian Museum, Chicago
   University of Helsinki

Appendix 4. Melammu Symposia (top)

1. Tvärminne 1998 (top)
"The Heirs of Assyria"
Opening Symposium of the Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project (Melammu)
Tvärminne, Finland, October 8-11, 1998

Planing Sessions
S. Parpola: Scope and Structure of the Database
R. M. Whiting: Database Format Options
S. Parpola and R. M. Whiting: Compilation and Management of the Database
S. Parpola: Organization of the Project

M. J. Geller: Mesopotamia's Intellectual Heritage in Babylonian Talmud
G. B. Lanfranchi: The Ideological and Political Impact of the Assyrian Imperial Expansion on the Greek World in the 8th sand 7th Centuries BC
A. Panaino: The Mesopotamian Heritage of the Achaemenid Kingship
K. Raaflaub: Influence, Adaptation, and Interaction: Eastern and Early Greek Political Thought
R. Rollinger: Altorientalische Geisteswelt und die Historien Herodots
A. M. Saadi: The Originality of the Syriac Historiography and the Beginning of the West-Syriac Tradition
M. L. West: Fable and Disputation
J. Westenholz: The King, the Emperor, and the Empire: royal representation in text and image
R. M. Whiting, The Survival of Symbols: An Example

2. Paris 1999 (top)
"Mythology and Mythologies: Methodological Approaches to Intercultural Influences"
Second Annual Meeting of the Assyrian and Babylonian Intellectual Heritage Project Melammu)
Institut finlandais, 60 rue des Ecoles, Paris, October 4-7, 1999

T. Abusch (Brandeis): The Epic of Gilgamesh
C. Grottanelli (Pisa): Combabos, Absalom, and the Epic of Gilgamesh
I. Gruenwald (Tel Aviv): Dining with the Gods: The Intercultural Nexus
A. Harrak (Toronto): Tales About Sennacherib: The Contribution of the Syriac Sources
J. Hämeen-Anttila (Helsinki): Descent and Ascent in Islamic Myth
C. Kessler (Emskirchen): Mandaean Mythology
J. Lawson (Dover): Mesopotamian Precursors to the Stoic concept of Logos
E. Y. Odisho (Chicago): The Ethnic, Cultural and Linguistic Identity of Modern Assyrians
A. Panaino (Ravenna): Some Remarks about the Unicorn in Mesopotamia, India and Iran
S. Parpola (Helsinki): Mesopotamian Precursors of the Gnostic Hymn of the Pearl
B. Pongratz-Leisten (Tübingen): The "Antagonistic World View" of Mythology and its Everyday "Sitz im Leben" in Ancient Mesopotamia and Greece
R. Rollinger (Innsbruck): The Ancient Greeks and the Impact of the Ancient Near East: Textual Evidence and Historical Perspective
P. Talon (Bruxelles): Enuma eliš and the Transmission of Babylonian Cosmology to the West
M. Weinfeld (Jerusalem): The Reflection of Melammu in Biblical Literature

Appendix 5. Contact Data (top)

1. Steering Committee Members (top)
Prof. Dr. Walter Burkert
Wildsbergstrasse 8
CH-8610 Uster
Phone/Fax: +41-1-9403013

Dr. Martti Nissinen
Raidepolku 2 B
FIN-00750 Helsinki
Phone: +358-9-3892979, +358-9-3894452

Prof. Antonio Panaino
Dipartimento di Studi linguistici e orientali
Università di Bologna
Via Zamboni 16
I-40126 Bologna
Phone: +39-2-738 5857, +39-54-235298 (fax)

Prof. Simo Parpola
Institute for Asian and African Studies
POB 59 (Unioninkatu 38 B)
FIN-00014 University of Helsinki
Phone: +358-9-1356164 (home),+358-9-191-22093 (office), +358-9-191-22094 (fax)

Prof. Kurt A. Raaflaub
Center for Hellenic Studies
3100 Whitehaven Street N.W.
Washington, DC 2000-3684
Phone: +1-202-234-3738, ext. 17, +1-202-797-3745 (fax)

Prof. Abdul Massih Saadi
Lutheran School of Theology
1100 E. 55th Street
Chicago, IL 60615

Dr. Martin L. West
All Souls College
Oxford OX1 4AL
Phone: +44-1865-556060, +44-1865-279299 (fax)

Dr. Joan Goodnick Westenholz
Oriental Institute
1155 East 58th St.
Chicago, IL 60637-1569
Phone: +1-773-702-9543 (work), +1-773-684-5352 (home)

Dr. Robert Whiting
Institute for Asian and African Studies
POB 59 (Unioninkatu 38 B)
FIN-00014 University of Helsinki
Phone: +358-9-191-23289, +358-9-191-22094 (fax)

2. Database Manager (top)
Pirjo Lapinkivi
Melammu Project
c/o Institute for Asian and African Studies
POB 59 (Unioninkatu 38 B)
FIN-00014 University of Helsinki
Phone: +358-9-191-22674, +358-9-191-22094 (fax)